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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

Barra da Tijuca.
Praia de Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (author-bisonlux on Flickr)
Praia de Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (author-bisonlux on Flickr).

 

 

Founded in 1565 by the Portuguese, the city was initially the seat of the Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro, a domain of the Portuguese Empire. Later, in 1763, it became the capital of the State of Brazil, a state of the Portuguese Empire. In 1808, when the Portuguese Royal Court transferred itself from Portugal to Brazil, Rio de Janeiro became the chosen seat of the court of Queen Maria I of Portugal, who subsequently, in 1815, under the leadership of her son, the Prince Regent, and future King João VI of Portugal, raised Brazil to the dignity of a kingdom, within the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil, and Algarves. Rio stayed the capital of the pluricontinental Lusitanian monarchy until 1822, when the War of Brazilian Independence began. This is one of the few instances in history that the capital of a colonising country officially shifted to a city in one of its colonies. Rio de Janeiro subsequently served as the capital of the independent monarchy, the Empire of Brazil, until 1889, and then the capital of a republican Brazil until 1960 when the capital was transferred to Brasília.

Rio de Janeiro (/ˈr di ʒəˈnɛər, d ʒə, də ə/; Portuguese pronunciation: [ˈʁi.u dʒi ʒɐˈnejɾu]; River of January), or simply Rio, is the second most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth most populous in the Americas. The metropolis is anchor to the Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, the second most populous metropolitan area in Brazil and seventh most populous in the Americas. Rio de Janeiro is the capital of the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil’s third most populous state. Part of the city has been designated as a World Heritage Site, named “Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the Mountain and the Sea“, by UNESCO on 1 July 2012 as a Cultural Landscape.

Rio de Janeiro has the second largest municipal GDP in the country, and 30th largest in the world in 2008, estimated at about R$343 billion (IBGE, 2008) (nearly US$201 billion). It is headquarters to Brazilian oil, mining, and telecommunications companies, including two of the country’s major corporations—Petrobras and Vale—and Latin America’s largest telemedia conglomerate, Grupo Globo. The home of many universities and institutes, it is the second-largest center of research and development in Brazil, accounting for 17% of national scientific output according to 2005 data.

Rio de Janeiro is one of the most visited cities in the Southern Hemisphere and is known for its natural settings, Carnival, samba, bossa nova, and balneario beaches such as Barra da Tijuca, Copacabana, Ipanema, and Leblon. In addition to the beaches, some of the most famous landmarks include the giant statue of Christ the Redeemer atop Corcovado mountain, named one of the New Seven Wonders of the World; Sugarloaf Mountain with its cable car; the Sambódromo (Sambadrome), a permanent grandstand-lined parade avenue which is used during Carnival; and Maracanã Stadium, one of the world’s largest football stadiums.

Rio de Janeiro will host the 2016 Summer Olympics and the 2016 Summer Paralympics—the first time a South American and Portuguese-speaking country will host these events, and the third time the Olympics will be held in a Southern Hemisphere city. The Maracanã Stadium held the finals of the 1950 and 2014 FIFA World Cups, the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup, and the XV Pan American Games.

 


 

 

History.

 

PortugalPortuguese Empire 1565–1815.
Flag United Kingdom Portugal Brazil Algarves.svg United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves 1815–1822.
 Empire of Brazil 1822–1889.
BrazilRepublic of Brazil 1889–present.

 

Founding of Rio de Janeiro in 1565.
Founding of Rio de Janeiro in 1565. (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

 

View of Rio de Janeiro.
View of Rio de Janeiro from the church of the monastery of São Bento, c. 1825.(author-Johann Moritz Rugendas (1802–1858)).

 

 

 

Botafogo Bay in 1869
Botafogo Bay in 1869 (artist-Nicola Antonio Facchinetti (1824–1900)).
 

 

Rio de Janeiro, 1910,
Rio de Janeiro, 1910, (photo_from USA Library of Congress (author unknown)).

 

Europeans first encountered Guanabara Bay on 1 January 1502 (hence Rio de Janeiro, “January River”), by a Portuguese expedition under explorer Gaspar de Lemos captain of a ship in Pedro Álvares Cabral’s fleet, or under Gonçalo Coelho. Allegedly the Florentine explorer Amerigo Vespucci participated as observer at the invitation of King Manuel I in the same expedition. The region of Rio was inhabited by the Tupi, Puri, Botocudo and Maxakalí peoples.

In 1555, one of the islands of Guanabara Bay, now called Villegagnon Island, was occupied by 500 French colonists under the French admiral Nicolas Durand de Villegaignon. Consequently, Villegagnon built Fort Coligny on the island when attempting to establish the France Antarctique colony.

The city of Rio de Janeiro proper was founded by the Portuguese on 1 March 1565 and was named São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro, in honour of St. Sebastian, the saint who was the namesake and patron of the then Portuguese Monarch D. Sebastião. Rio de Janeiro was the name of Guanabara Bay. Until early in the 18th century, the city was threatened or invaded by several, mostly French, pirates and buccaneers, such as Jean-François Duclerc and René Duguay-Trouin.

In the late 17th century, still during the Sugar Era, the Bandeirantes found gold and diamonds in the neighbouring captaincy of Minas Gerais, thus Rio de Janeiro became a much more practical port for exporting wealth (gold, precious stones, besides the sugar) than Salvador, Bahia, which is much farther to the northeast. On 27 January 1763, the colonial administration in Portuguese America was moved from Salvador to Rio de Janeiro. The city remained primarily a colonial capital until 1808, when the Portuguese royal family and most of the associated Lisbon nobles, fleeing from Napoleon’s invasion of Portugal, moved to Rio de Janeiro. The kingdom’s capital was transferred to the city, which, thus, became the only European capital outside of Europe. As there was no physical space or urban structure to accommodate hundreds of noblemen who arrived suddenly, many inhabitants were simply evicted from their homes. There was a large influx of African slaves to Rio de Janeiro: in 1819, there were 145,000 slaves in the captaincy. In 1840, the number of slaves reached 220,000 people.

When Prince Pedro proclaimed the independence of Brazil in 1822, he decided to keep Rio de Janeiro as the capital of his new empire. Rio continued as the capital of Brazil after 1889, when the monarchy was replaced by a republic. Until the early years of the 20th century, the city was largely limited to the neighbourhood now known as the historic city centre (see below), on the mouth of Guanabara Bay. The city’s centre of gravity began to shift south and west to the so-called Zona Sul (South Zone) in the early part of the 20th century, when the first tunnel was built under the mountains located between Botafogo and the neighbourhood now known as Copacabana. Expansion of the city to the north and south was facilitated by the consolidation and electrification of Rio’s streetcar transit system after 1905. Botafogo’s natural beauty, combined with the fame of the Copacabana Palace Hotel, the luxury hotel of the Americas in the 1930s, helped Rio to gain the reputation it still holds today as a beach party town (although this reputation has been somewhat tarnished in recent years by favela violence resulting from the narcotics trade). Plans for moving the nation’s capital city to the territorial centre had been occasionally discussed, and when Juscelino Kubitschek was elected president in 1955, it was partially on the strength of promises to build a new capital. Though many thought that it was just campaign rhetoric, Kubitschek managed to have Brasília built, at great cost, by 1960. On 21 April that year the capital of Brazil was officially moved from Rio de Janeiro to Brasília.

Between 1960 and 1975, Rio was a city-state under the name Guanabara State (after the bay it borders). However, for administrative and political reasons, a presidential decree known as “The Fusion” removed the city’s federative status and merged it with the State of Rio de Janeiro, the territory surrounding the city whose capital was Niterói, in 1975. Even today, some Cariocas advocate the return of municipal autonomy.

The city hosted the 2007 Pan American Games and the 2014 FIFA World Cup final. It was announced on 2 October 2009, that Rio will host the 2016 Olympic Games, beating the finalist competitors Chicago, Tokyo, and Madrid. The city will become the first South American city to host the event and the second Latin American city (after Mexico City in 1968) to host the Games. The city hosted the World Youth Day in 2013, the second World Youth Day in South America and first in Brazil.

 

 

 

 

Geography.

 

Pedra da Gávea sea view.
Pedra da Gávea sea view. (author-ri5co).

 

 

Rio de Janeiro is on the far western part of a strip of Brazil’s Atlantic coast (between a strait east to Ilha Grande, on the Costa Verde, and the Cabo Frio), close to the Tropic of Capricorn, where the shoreline is oriented east–west. Facing largely south, the city was founded on an inlet of this stretch of the coast, Guanabara Bay (Baía de Guanabara), and its entrance is marked by a point of land called Sugar Loaf (Pão de Açúcar)—a “calling card” of the city.

The Centre (Centro), the core of Rio, lies on the plains of the western shore of Guanabara Bay. The greater portion of the city, commonly referred to as the North Zone (Zona Norte), extends to the northwest on plains composed of marine and continental sediments and on hills and several rocky mountains. The South Zone (Zona Sul) of the city, reaching the beaches fringing the open sea, is cut off from the Centre and from the North Zone by coastal mountains. These mountains and hills are offshoots of the Serra do Mar to the northwest, the ancient gneiss-granite mountain chain that forms the southern slopes of the Brazilian Highlands. The large West Zone (Zona Oeste), long cut off by the mountainous terrain, had been made more easily accessible by those on the South Zone by new roads and tunnels by the end of the 20th century.

The population of the city of Rio de Janeiro, occupying an area of 1,182.3 square kilometres (456.5 sq mi), is about 6,000,000. The population of the greater metropolitan area is estimated at 11–13.5 million. It was Brazil’s capital until 1960, when Brasília took its place. Residents of the city are known as cariocas. The official song of Rio is “Cidade Maravilhosa”, by composer André Filho.

 

 

Panorama of the city of Rio de Janeiro.
Panorama of the city of Rio de Janeiro highlighting the mountains of Corcovado (left), Sugarloaf (center, background) and Two Brothers (right), from the Chinese Belvedere (author-beckstei).

 

Climate.

 

 

Sugarloaf Mountain.
Sugarloaf Mountain (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

 

Rio has a tropical savanna climate (Aw) that closely borders a tropical monsoon climate (Am) according to the Köppen climate classification, and is often characterized by long periods of heavy rain from December to March. In inland areas of the city, temperatures above 40 °C (104 °F) are common during the summer, though rarely for long periods, while maximum temperatures above 27 °C (81 °F) can occur on a monthly basis.

Along the coast, the breeze, blowing onshore and offshore, moderates the temperature. Because of its geographic situation, the city is often reached, especially during autumn and winter, by cold fronts advancing from Antarctica, causing frequent weather changes. It is mostly in summer that strong showers provoke catastrophic floods and landslides. The mountainous areas register greater rainfall since they constitute a barrier to the humid wind that comes from the Atlantic.

 

 

View of Rio de Janeiro from Niterói,
View of Rio de Janeiro from Niterói (author-Leonardo Ferreira Mendes).

 

 
View of the Marina da Glória.
View of the Marina da Glória (author-Rodrigo Soldon).

 

 

 

Aerial View of Flamengo.
Aerial View of Flamengo (author-Donatas Dabravolskas).

 

 

The city reputedly has had rare frosts in the past, but this has never been decisively confirmed. Some areas within Rio de Janeiro state occasionally have falls of snow grains and ice pellets (popularly called granizo, or “hail”, although it is in fact melted and refrozen snow falling in the form of a ball—true hail, rather than just icy snow along showers, is much less common). These phenomena are definitely not rare or limited to a few regions, having already happened in the metropolitan area (including western suburbs of the city itself) several times in the 21st century. In other areas there is true snowfall more than once in each century (the last time this occurred in Rio de Janeiro state was in the mid-1980s), most commonly around the highest mountain in the state (for perhaps centuries thought to be the country’s highest) and fifth highest in the country, Pico das Agulhas Negras, in the cities of Resende and Itatiaia (in lower latitudes than Rio de Janeiro, but much higher altitudes).

Elsewhere in the state, drought is very rare, albeit bound to happen occasionally given its strongly seasonal tropical climate. The Brazilian drought of 2014–2015, most severe in the Southeast Region and the worst in decades, affected the entire metropolitan region’s water supply (a diversion from the Paraíba do Sul River to the Guandu River is a major source for the state’s most populous mesoregion). Plans to divert the Paraíba do Sul to the Sistema Cantareira (Cantareira system) during its water crisis of 2014, in order to help the critically drought-stricken Greater São Paulo area, offered the easiest short-term response to the consequences of climate change and the deforestation of the Amazon rainforest (itself affecting climate change), an issue expected to linger across the entire country in the near future. This will likely make the situation even more complex, however, as sufficient rainfall to supply tap water service to both metropolitan areas in the future is merely speculative. This circumstance, as shown in a recent central government report, is worsened by the fact that 37% of the country’s tap water is being lost due to leaky pipes (sometimes resulting in contaminated water), fraud and illegal access, and by the country’s use of hydroelectric power as its main energy source.

Roughly in the same suburbs (Nova Iguaçu and surrounding areas, including parts of Campo Grande and Bangu) that correspond to the location of the March 2012, February–March 2013 and January 2015 pseudo-hail (granizo) falls, there was a tornado-like phenomenon in January 2011, for the first time in the region’s recorded history, causing structural damage and long-lasting blackouts, but no fatalities.The World Meteorological Organization has advised that Brazil, especially its southeastern region, must be prepared for increasingly severe weather occurrences in the near future, since events such as the catastrophic January 2011 Rio de Janeiro floods and mudslides are not an isolated phenomenon. “This (the early 2010s serial devastation in Rio de Janeiro’s mesoregions of Metropolitana do Rio de Janeiro and Sul Fluminense) was not an isolated event. The events in Brazil confirms a global trend that storms tend to be increasingly strong and in places where it did not take place with the same force”, said Rupakumar Kolli, WMO expert on climatological phenomena. In early May 2013, winds registering above 90 km/h (56 mph) caused blackouts in 15 neighborhoods of the city and three surrounding municipalities, and killed one person. Rio saw similarly high winds (about 100 km/h (62 mph)) in January 2015. The average annual minimum temperature is 21 °C (70 °F), the average annual maximum temperature is 27 °C (81 °F), and the average annual temperature is 24 °C (75 °F). The average yearly precipitation is 1,069 mm (42.1 in).

 

 

Urca and Copacabana views from Sugarloaf Mountain.
Urca and Copacabana views from Sugarloaf Mountain. (author-Vanessa Marques).

 

 

Temperature also varies according to elevation, distance from the coast, and type of vegetation or land use. Winter, cold fronts and dawn/morning sea breezes bring mild temperatures; cold fronts, the Intertropical Convergence Zone (in the form of winds from the Amazon Forest), the strongest sea-borne winds (often from an extratropical cyclone) and summer evapotranspiration bring showers or storms. Thus the monsoon-like climate has dry and mild winters and springs, and very wet and warm summers and autumns. As a result, temperatures over 40 °C (104 °F), that may happen about year-round but are much more common during the summer, often mean the actual temperature feeling is over 50 °C (122 °F), when there is little wind and the relative humidity percentage is high. In such weather, avoiding dehydration (by high consumption of water, and if possibly potassium in people not affected by hyperkalemia, and low consumption of sodium), over-exercising and direct exposure to the sun is recommended, especially for children and elders. Rio de Janeiro is second onlyto Cuiabá as the hottest Brazilian state capital outside Northern and Northeastern Brazil; temperatures below 14 °C (57 °F) occur yearly, while those lower than 11 °C (52 °F) happen less often. The phrase, fazer frio (“making cold”, i.e. “the weather is getting cold”), usually refers to temperatures going below 21 °C (70 °F), which is possible year-round and is commonplace in mid-to-late autumn, winter and early spring nights.

There is also a slightly greater seasonal difference in the incidence of solar radiation people receive in Rio de Janeiro (or about anywhere else in the Southern Hemisphere) in comparison to places in the Northern Hemisphere with similar climate and the same exact latitude as the Earth most closely approaches Sol (the local Sun) only 12 days after the Southern Hemisphere’s summer solstice. See illustration at the article on the Earth’s seasons.

Between 1961 and 1990, at the INMET (Brazilian National Institute of Meteorology) conventional station located in the neighborhood of Saúde, the lowest temperature recorded was 10.1 °C (50.2 °F) in October 1977, and the highest temperature recorded was 39 °C (102.2 °F) in December 1963. The highest accumulated rainfall in 24 hours was 167.4 mm (6.6 in) in January 1962. However, the absolute minimum temperature ever recorded at the INMET Jacarepaguá station, 3.8 °C (38.8 °F) in July 1974, while the absolute maximum was 43.2 °C (110 °F) 26 December 2012,in the neighborhood of the Santa Cruz station, while the highest accumulated rainfall in 24 hours, of 186.2 mm (7.3 in) was recorded at the Santa Teresa station in April 1967. The lowest temperature ever registered in the 21st century was 8.1 °C (46.6 °F) in Vila Militar, July 2011.

 

 

 

 

City districts.

 

 

The city is commonly divided into the historic center (Centro); the tourist-friendly wealthier South Zone (Zona Sul); the residential less wealthy North Zone (Zona Norte); peripheries in the West Zone (Zona Oeste), Santa Cruz and Campo Grande and the wealthy newer Barra da Tijuca district.

 

 

 

 

 

Downtown.

 

Aerial view of Downtown Rio.
Aerial view of Downtown Rio (author-Rodrigo Soldon).

 

 

 

Carioca Aqueduct, also called "Arcos da Lapa" (Lapa Arches).
Carioca Aqueduct, also called “Arcos da Lapa” (Lapa Arches). (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

 

Centro or Downtown is the historic core of the city, as well as its financial centre. Sites of interest include the Paço Imperial, built during colonial times to serve as a residence for the Portuguese governors of Brazil; many historic churches, such as the Candelária Church, (the former cathedral), São Jose, Santa Lucia, Nossa Senhora do Carmo, Santa Rita, São Francisco de Paula, and the monasteries of Santo Antônio and São Bento. The Centro also houses the modern concrete Rio de Janeiro Cathedral. Around the Cinelândia square, there are several landmarks of the Belle Époque of Rio, such as the Municipal Theatre and the National Library building. Among its several museums, the Museu Nacional de Belas Artes (National Museum of Fine Arts) and the Museu Histórico Nacional (National Historical Museum) are the most important. Other important historical attractions in central Rio include its Passeio Público, an 18th-century public garden. Major streets include Avenida Rio Branco and Avenida Vargas, both constructed, in 1906 and 1942 respectively, by destroying large swaths of the colonial city. A number of colonial streets, such as Rua do Ouvidor and Uruguaiana, have long been pedestrian spaces, and the popular Saara shopping district has been pedestrianized more recently. It is also located in the center the traditional neighbourhood called Lapa, important bohemian area frequented by townspeople and tourists.

 

 

 

 

 

South Zone.

 

 

Cablecar arriving at Sugarloaf.
Cablecar arriving at Sugarloaf (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

 

The South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (Zona Sul) is composed of several districts, among which are São Conrado, Leblon, Ipanema, Arpoador, Copacabana, and Leme, which compose Rio’s famous Atlantic beach coastline. Other districts in the South Zone are Glória, Catete, Flamengo, Botafogo, and Urca, which border Guanabara Bay and Santa Teresa, Cosme Velho, Laranjeiras, Humaitá, Lagoa, Jardim Botânico, and Gávea.

It is the wealthiest part of the city and the best known overseas; the neighborhood of Leblon in particular has the most expensive real estate in all of South America.

The neighbourhood of Copacabana beach hosts one of the world’s most spectacular New Year’s Eve parties (“Reveillon”), as more than two million revelers crowd onto the sands to watch the fireworks display. As of 2001, the fireworks have been launched from boats, to improve the safety of the event. To the north of Leme, and at the entrance to Guanabara Bay, is the district of Urca and the Sugarloaf Mountain (‘Pão de Açúcar’), whose name describes the famous mountain rising out of the sea. The summit can be reached via a two-stage cable car trip from Praia Vermelha, with the intermediate stop on Morro da Urca. It offers views second only to Corcovado mountain.

Hang gliding is a popular activity on the Pedra Bonita (literally, “Beautiful Rock”). After a short flight, gliders land on the Praia do Pepino (Pepino, or “cucumber”, Beach) in São Conrado.

Since 1961, the Tijuca National Park (Parque Nacional da Tijuca), the largest city-surrounded urban forest and the second largest urban forest in the world, has been a National Park. The largest urban forest in the world is the Floresta da Pedra Branca (White Rock Forest), which is also located in the West Zone of Rio de Janeiro. The Pontifical Catholic University of Rio (Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio de Janeiro or PUC-Rio), Brazil’s top private university, is located at the edge of the forest, in the Gávea district. The 1984 film Blame It on Rio was filmed nearby, with the rental house used by the story’s characters sitting at the edge of the forest on a mountain overlooking the famous beaches.

 

 

Aerial panorama of Santa Teresa.
Aerial panorama of Santa Teresa, a neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro, with the Christ the Redeemer, Tijuca Forest and Sugarloaf Mountain, in the background ((author-Jens Hausherr)).

 

 

 

 

 

North Zone.

 

 

Tijuca Forest in the city.
Tijuca Forest in the city (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

 

The iconic Maracanã Stadium.
The iconic Maracanã Stadium (author-Leandro Neumann Ciuffo).

 

 

Palace of São Cristóvão.
Palace of São Cristóvão, the former residence of the Emperors of Brazil, now National Museum of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (author-taurus_br).

 

The North Zone (Zona Norte) begins at Grande Tijuca (the middle class residential and commercial bairro of Tijuca and its surrounding neighbourhoods and favelas Slums ), just west of the city center, and sprawls for miles inland until Baixada Fluminense and the city’s Northwest.

This region is home to the Maracanã stadium (located in Grande Tijuca), once the world’s highest capacity football venue, able to hold nearly 199,000 people, as it did the World Cup final of 1950. In modern times its capacity has been reduced to conform with modern safety regulations and the stadium has introduced seating for all fans. Currently undergoing reconstruction, it has now the capacity for 90,000 fans; it will eventually hold around 80,000 people. Maracanã was site for the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and football competition of the 2007 Pan American Games, and hosted the final match of 2014 FIFA World Cup and will also host the Opening and Closing Ceremonies and football matches of the 2016 Summer Olympics.

Besides Maracanã, the North Zone of Rio also holds other tourist and historical attractions, such “Nossa Senhora da Penha de França Church”, with as builted in a top of a rock like the Christ the Redeemer (statue) the most interesting feature is the stair builted in the rock bed, ‘Manguinhos’, the home of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, a centenarian biomedical research institution with a main building fashioned like a Moorish palace, and the beautiful Quinta da Boa Vista, the park where the historic Imperial Palace is located. Nowadays, the palace hosts the National Museum, specialising in Natural History, Archaeology, and Ethnology.

The International Airport of Rio de Janeiro (Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport, named after the famous Brazilian musician Antônio Carlos Jobim), the main campus of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro at the Fundão Island, and the State University of Rio de Janeiro, in Maracanã, are also located in the Northern part of Rio.

This region is also home to most of the samba schools of Rio de Janeiro such as Mangueira, Salgueiro, Império Serrano, Unidos da Tijuca, among others. Some of the main neighbourhoods of Rio’s North Zone are Alto da Boa Vista which shares the Tijuca Rainforest with the South and Southwest Zones; Tijuca, Vila Isabel, Méier, São Cristovão, Madureira, Penha, Manguinhos, Fundão, Olaria among others.

Many of Rio de Janeiro’s roughly 1000 Slums, or favelas, are located in the North Zone. The favelas resemble the slums of Paris, New York or other major cities in the 19th and early 20th centuries in the United States and Europe, or of similar neighborhoods in present underdeveloped countries.

 

 

 

 

 

West Zone.

 

 

Aqueduct built in the 18th Century.
Aqueduct built in the 18th Century, as was the entire historic complex of the Colônia Juliano Moreira inside Pedra Branca State Park in Taquara (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

West Zone of Rio de Janeiro is a complicated place that makes up more than 50% of the city area. The West Side of Rio has many historic sites because of the old “Royal Road of Santa Cruz” that crossed the territory in the regions of Realengo, Bangu, Campo Grande and finishing at the Royal Palace of Santa Cruz in the Santa Cruz region.

The highest peak of the city of Rio de Janeiro is the Pedra Branca Peak (Pico da Pedra Branca) inside the Pedra Branca State Park. It has an altitude of 1024m. The Pedra Branca State Park (Parque Estadual da Pedra Branca) is the biggest urban state park in the world comprising 17 neighborhoods in the west side, being a “giant lung” in the city with trails, waterfalls and historic constructions like an old aqueduct in the Colônia Juliano Moreira in the neighborhood of Taquara and a dam in Camorim. The park has three principal entrances: the main one is in Taquara called Pau da Fome Core, another entrance is the Piraquara Core in Realengo and the last one is the Camorim Core, considered the cultural heritage of the city.

Santa Cruz and Campo Grande Region have exhibited economic growth, mainly in the Campo Grande neighborhood. Industrial enterprises are being built in contemporarily lower and lower middle class residential Santa Cruz, one of the largest and most populous of Rio de Janeiro’s neighbourhoods, most notably Companhia Siderúrgica do Atlântico (CSA), a new steel mill with its own private docks on Sepetiba Bay, which is planned to be South America’s largest steel works.

A tunnel called Túnel da Grota Funda, opened in 2012, creating a public transit facility between Barra da Tijuca and Santa Cruz, lessening travel time to the region from other areas of Rio de Janeiro.

 

 

 

 

 

Barra da Tijuca Region.

 

 

Barra da Tijuca.
Panoramic view of Barra da Tijuca (author-Barrazine da Barra on Flickr).

 

 

This area is the most recently modernized region of Rio de Janeiro. The region of Barra da Tijuca includes Barra da Tijuca, Recreio dos Bandeirantes, Vargem Grande, Vargem Pequena, Grumari, Itanhangá, Camorim and Joá.

Westwards from the older zones of Rio, Barra da Tijuca is a flat complex of barrier islands of formerly undeveloped coastal land, which constantly experiences new constructions and developments. It remains an area of accelerated growth, attracting some of the richer sectors of the population as well as luxury companies. High rise flats and sprawling shopping centers give the area a far more Modernism feel than the crowded city centre.

The urban planning of the area, completed in the late 1960s, mixes zones of single-family houses with residential skyscrapers. The beaches of Barra da Tijuca are also popular with the city’s residents.

One of the most famous hills in the city is the 842-metre-high (2,762-foot) Pedra da Gávea (Crow’s nest Rock) bordering the South Zone. On the top of its summit is a huge rock formation (some, such as Erich von Däniken in his 1973 book, In Search of Ancient Gods, claim it to be a sculpture) resembling a sphinx-like, bearded head that is visible for many kilometres around.

 

 

 

 

 

The British Arrival in Bangu and the First Football Match Inside Brazil.

 

 

On February 6, 1889 the Bangu Textile Factory was founded, with the former name of Industrial Progress Company of Brazil (Companhia Progresso Industrial do Brasil). The factory was officially opened on March 8, 1893, in a very beautiful architectural complex with styles like Italianate, Neo-Gothic and a tower in Mansard Roof style.

After the opening in 1893, crowded trains with multitudes of workers from Great Britain arrived in Bangu to work in the textile factory. Accordingly, the neighborhood started to take shape with the old farms were becoming worker villages with red bricks houses, a beautiful neo-gothic church was created and exists until nowadays as the Saint Sebastian and Saint Cecilia Parish Church, and street cinemas & cultural buildings appeared.

And in May 1894, Thomas Donohoe, a British worker from Busby, Scotland, set sail from Southampton to Rio, leaving behind his wife and two young sons. Arriving in Bangu, the Scot soon settled among the British community in the village. Though happy with his job, and his new friends, he pined for his old hobby, finding Bangu’s Sunday pastimes of cycling or music no match for football.

Donohoe was horrified to discover there were no teams in the neighborhood, no equipment to be bought in the shops, and no knowledge of the game whatsoever among the locals. So he wrote to his wife, Elizabeth, asking her to join him, and to bring a football, as well as their children. And shortly after her arrival, in September 1894, the first football match in Brazil took place in the field beside the textile factory. It was a five-a-side match between British workers, and took place six months before Charles Miller’s game.

In December 1903, after a trip to his hometown, Thomas Donohoe brought to Bangu two more football balls. On April 17, 1904 in a house of the old Estevão Street, the Bangu Football Club was formerly created with the presence of Mr. Andrew Procter, Mr. Clarence Hibbs, Mr. Frederich Jacques, Mr. John Starck, Mr. José Soares, Mr. Segundo Maffeu, Mr. Thomas Hellowell, Mr. William French, Mr. William Hellowell and Mr. William Procter. In the record the names of Mr. Thomas Donohoe, Mr. José Villas Boas and Mr. James Hartley don’t appear for some unknown reason but their names were included sequentially as vice-president and in the Board Audit Committee of the Club.

The Bangu Textile Factory closed in 2004. The process of bankruptcy started in the 1970s because of the creeping transition to “favelas” from neighborhoods of the South Side to the West Side of Rio, a problem which made the regions of Bangu and Realengo less appealing. In 2007 all the historic sites of the factory became a shopping mall called Bangu Shopping.

In 2015, in the Rio de Janeiro International Short Film Festival, a short film about Bangu and Thomas Donohoe called “Pass to Mr. Danau” (Bola Para Seu Danau, in Portuguese) won the “Curta Rio Award” together with 9 other Shorts about the city.

 

 

 

 

Demographics.

 

 

According to the 2010 IBGE Census, there were 5,940,224 people residing in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The census revealed the following numbers: 3,239,888 White people (51.2%), 2,318,675 Pardo (multiracial) people (36.5%), 708,148 Black people (11.5%), 45,913 East Asian people (0.7%), 5,981 Amerindian people (0.1%). The population of Rio de Janeiro was 53.2% female and 46.8% male.

In 2010, the city of Rio de Janeiro was the 2nd most populous city in Brazil, after São Paulo.

Different ethnic groups contributed to the formation of the population of Rio de Janeiro. Before European colonization, there were at least seven different indigenous peoples speaking 20 languages in the region. A part of them joined the Portuguese and the other the French. Those who joined the French were then exterminated by the Portuguese, while the other part was assimilated.

 

 

Portuguese immigrant in the city.
Portuguese immigrant in the city. Rio de Janeiro is considered the largest “Portuguese city” outside Portugal (author-Marc Ferrez (1843–1923).

 

Rio de Janeiro is home to the largest Portuguese population outside of Lisbon in Portugal. After independence from Portugal, Rio de Janeiro became a destination for hundreds of thousands of immigrants from Portugal, mainly in the early 20th century. The immigrants were mostly poor peasants who subsequently found prosperity in Rio as city workers and small traders. The Portuguese cultural influence is still seen in many parts of the city (and many other parts of the state of Rio de Janeiro), including architecture and language—almost every person native to Brazil with some cultural contact with Rio and its inhabitants knows how to easily differentiate between fluminense and other Brazilian dialects.

People of Portuguese ancestry predominate in most of the state. The Brazilian census of 1920 showed that 39.74% of the Portuguese who lived in Brazil lived in Rio de Janeiro. Including all of the Rio de Janeiro, the proportion raised to 46.30% of the Portuguese who lived in Brazil. The numerical presence of the Portuguese was extremely high, accounting for 72% of the foreigners who lived in the capital. Portuguese born people accounted for 20.36% of the population of Rio, and those with a Portuguese father or a Portuguese mother accounted for 30.84%. In other words, native born Portuguese and their children accounted for 51.20% of the inhabitants of Rio, or a total of 267,664 people in 1890.

The black community was formed with residents whose ancestors had been brought as slaves, mostly from Angola or Mozambique, as well as more people of Angolan, Mozambican and West African descent from other parts of Brazil. The samba (from Bahia with Angolan influence) and the famous local version of the carnival (from Europe) first appeared under the influence of the black community in the city.

Today, nearly half of the city’s population is perceptibly by phenotype black or part black, and a wide majority has some recent Subsaharan ancestor—white in Brazil has more to do with European-looking phenotypes rather than ancestry, and two full siblings can be of different “racial” categories, or actually in a skin color and phenotype continuum between pálido (branco) or fair-skinned, branco moreno or swarthy Caucasian, mestiço claro or lighter skinned multiracial, pardo (mixed race) or and negro or black. Race classifications as they are known in the Anglosphere are not followed in Brazilian culture (at least for most of the population), which captures the concept of cor or “color”, the continuous range of phenotypes, and as such perceptions that now most Brazilians are “black rather than white” according to the census data are erroneous in a cultural relativistic viewpoint. Pardo, for example, in popular usage includes those who are caboclos (mestizos), mulatos (mulattoes), cafuzos (zambos), juçaras (archaic term for tri-racials) and westernized Amerindians (which are called caboclos as well), being more of a skin color rather than a racial group in particular.

European and Amerindian ancestries also have overwhelming and wide majorities respectively in Rio de Janeiro’s population despite any classifications in IBGE’s standardized racial groups, thus there were a bi-directional impact of miscegenation (in minor degree, it also happened in other multicultural white-majority regions, at least in some regions of the United States—a hypodescent society where there was the phenomena of passing—as well Argentina, and it is common elsewhere in Latin America) in both white and black populations.

As a result of the influx of immigrants to Brazil from the late 19th to the early 20th century, one may find in Rio de Janeiro and its metropolitan area communities of Levantine Arabs (mostly Christian or Irreligious), Spaniards, Italians, Germans, Japanese, Jews, and people from different parts of Brazil. The main waves of internal migration came from people of African, mixed or older Portuguese (as colony’s settlers) descent from Minas Gerais and people of Eastern European, Swiss, Italian, German, Portuguese and older Portuguese-Brazilian heritage from Espírito Santo in the early and mid-20th century, and people with origins in Northeastern Brazil, of diverse origins, in the mid-to-late and late 20th century, as well some in the early 21st century (the latter more directed to peripheries than the city’s core in itself). According to an autosomal DNA study from 2009, conducted on a school in the poor periphery of Rio de Janeiro, the “pardos” there were found to be on average about 80% European, and the “whites” (who thought of themselves as “very mixed”) were found out to carry very little Amerindian and/or African admixtures.

“The results of the tests of genomic ancestry are quite different from the self made estimates of European ancestry”, say the researchers. In general, the test results showed that European ancestry is far more important than the students thought it would be. The “pardos” for example thought of themselves as ⅓ European, ⅓ African and ⅓ Amerindian before the tests, and yet their ancestry on average reached 80% European. Other studies showed similar results.

 

 

Religion.

 

Candelária Church.
Candelária Church, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil (author-Irene Nóbrega).

 

 

Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, according to 2009 research from Fundação Getúlio Vargas (known as Novo Mapa das Religiões), ranks first among Brazilian peripheries in Catholic percentage (51.09%). Rio de Janeiro city is also the fifth Brazilian capital in the percent of irreligious population (13.33%), barely changing since 2000 (while the first, Boa Vista, has 21.16%). It is also the Brazilian capital with the greatest percentage of Spiritists (now about 4–5%), and with substantial numbers in Afro-Brazilian religions and Eastern religions.

 

 

 

 

 

Urban Challenges.

 

 

Rocinha slum (favela) at night, 2014, panorama.
Rocinha slum (favela) at night, 2014, panorama (author-Chensiyuan).

 

There are significant disparities between the rich and the poor in Rio de Janeiro, and different socioeconomic groups are largely segregated into different neighborhoods. Although the city clearly ranks among the world’s major metropolises, large swaths of the population live in slums known as favelas. In the favelas, 95% of the population are poor, compared to 40% in the general population. There have been a number of government initiatives to counter this problem, from the removal of the population from favelas to housing projects such as Cidade de Deus to the more recent approach of improving conditions in the favelas, bringing them up to par with the rest of the city, as was the focus of the “Favela Bairro” program and deployment of Pacifying Police Units.

At the same time, in 2000, there were several Rio neighborhoods with Human Development Index scores higher than the most developed countries in the world.

  • Leblon neighbourhood (HDI: 0.967; at the same level of Norway Norway, the world’s highest country HDI)
  • Bangu neighborhood (HDI: 0.794; at the same level of Argentina Argentina)

The HDI of Brazil overall was 0.744 and Rio State was 0.761. The city scores 0.799.

 

 
 

Economy.

 

 

Botafogo at night.
Botafogo at night seen from the Christ the Redeemer (author-Rosino on Flickr).

 

 

Rio de Janeiro has the second largest GDP of any city in Brazil, surpassed only by São Paulo. According to the IBGE, it was approximately US$201 billion in 2008, equivalent to 5.1% of the national total. The services sector comprises the largest portion of GDP (65.52%), followed by commerce (23.38%), industrial activities (11.06%) and agriculture (0.04%).

Benefiting from the federal capital position it had for a long period (1763–1960), the city became a dynamic administrative, financial, commercial and cultural center. Greater Rio de Janeiro, as perceived by the IBGE, has a GDP of US$187.374.116.000, constituting the second largest hub of national wealth. Per capita GDP is US$11,786. It concentrates 68% of the state’s economic strength and 7.91% of all goods and services produced in the country.

 

 

 

Aterro do Flamengo,
Aterro do Flamengo at night with Downtown Rio in the background (author-Pppires).

 

 

 

Barra da Tijuca.
Barra da Tijuca (author-Rafael Rabello de Barros).

 

 

Taking into consideration the network of influence exerted by the urban metropolis (which covers 11.3% of the population), this share in GDP rises to 14.4%, according to a study released in October 2008 by the IBGE. For many years brings together the second largest industrial hub of Brazil, with oil refineries, shipbuilding industries, steel, metallurgy, petrochemical, gas, chemical, textile, printing, publishing, pharmaceutical, beverages, cement and furniture. However, the last decades indicated a sharp transformation in its economic profile, which is acquiring more and more shades of a major national hub of services and businesses. The Rio de Janeiro Stock Exchange (BVRJ), which currently trades only government securities, was the first stock exchange founded in Brazil in 1845 and located in the central region.

Rio de Janeiro became an attractive place for companies to locate when it was the capital of Brazil, as important sectors of society and of the government were present in the city. The city was chosen as headquarters for state-owned companies such as Petrobras, Eletrobras, Caixa Econômica Federal and Vale (which was privatized in the 1990s). After the transfer of the capital to Brasília, in 1960, it kept attracting more companies, especially after the discovery of oil in the Campos Basin, which produces most of the total oil production of Brazil. This made many oil and gas companies to be based in Rio de Janeiro, such as the Brazilian branches of Shell, EBX and Esso. The headquarters of BNDES, an important state institution, is also in Rio de Janeiro. The city is also the headquarters of large telecom companies, such as Intelig, Oi and Embratel.

Rio ranks second nationally in industrial production and second financial and service center, trailing only São Paulo. The city’s industries produce processed foods, chemicals, petroleum products, pharmaceuticals, metal products, ships, textiles, clothing, and furniture. The service sector dominates the economy, however, and includes banking and the second most active stock market in Brazil, the Bolsa da Valores do Brasil. Tourism and entertainment are other key aspects of the city’s economic life and the city is the nation’s top tourist attraction for both Brazilians and foreigners.

 

Aerial view of Downtown Rio.
Rio Branco Avenue, in the financial district of the city. (author-Rodrigo Soldon).

 

 

Because it was once the national capital, Rio de Janeiro was chosen as the site for the headquarters of many private, national, multinational, and state corporations, even when their factories were located in other cities or states. Despite the transfer of the capital to Brasília, many of these headquarters remained within the Rio metropolitan area, including those of Petrobrás, the state oil company, and the National Economic and Social Development Bank, a federal investment bank.

A newer electronics and computer sector has been added to the older industries of metallurgy, engineering, and printing and publishing. Other manufacturing sectors focus on the production of shipyard-related materials, apparel and footwear, textiles, nonmetallic mineral products, food and beverages, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. Construction, also an important activity, provides a significant source of employment for large numbers of unskilled workers and is buoyed by the number of seasonal residents who build second homes in the Greater Rio de Janeiro area.

To attract industry, the state government has designated certain areas on the outskirts of the city as industrial districts where infrastructure is provided and land sales are made under special conditions. Oil and natural gas from fields off the northern coast of Rio de Janeiro state are a major asset used for developing manufacturing activities in Rio’s metropolitan area, enabling it to compete with other major cities for new investment in industry.

As with manufacturing, Rio is an important financial centre, second only to São Paulo in volume of business in financial markets and in banking. Its securities market, although declining in significance relative to São Paulo, is still of major importance. Owing to the proximity of Rio’s port facilities, many of Brazil’s export-import companies are headquartered in the city. In Greater Rio, which has one of the highest per capita incomes in Brazil, retail trade is substantial. Many of the most important retail stores are located in the Centre, but others are scattered throughout the commercial areas of the other districts, where shopping centres, supermarkets, and other retail businesses handle a large volume of consumer trade.

Rio de Janeiro is (as of 2014) the second largest exporting municipality in Brazil. Annually, Rio exported a total of $7.49B (USD) worth of goods. The top three goods exported by the municipality were crude petroleum (40%), semi finished iron product (16%), and semi finished steel products (11%). Material categories of mineral products (42%) and metals (29%) make up 71% of all exports from Rio.

Major Brazilian entertainment and media organizations are based in Rio de Janeiro like Organizações Globo and also some of Brazil’s major newspapers: Jornal do Brasil, O Dia, and Business Rio. Major international pharmaceutical companies have their Brazilian headquarters in Rio such as: Merck, Roche, Arrow, Darrow, Baxter, Mayne, and Mappel.

Compared to other cities, Rio de Janeiro’s economy is the 2nd largest in Brazil, behind São Paulo, and the 30th largest in the world with a GDP of R$ 201,9 billion in 2010. The per capita income for the city was R$22,903 in 2007 (around US$14,630). According to Mercer’s city rankings of cost of living for expatriate employees, Rio de Janeiro ranks 12th among the most expensive cities in the world in 2011, up from the 29th position in 2010, just behind São Paulo (ranked 10th), and ahead of London, Paris, Milan, and New York City. Rio also has the most expensive hotel rates in Brazil, and the daily rate of its five star hotels are the second most expensive in the world after only NYC.

 

 

 

 

 

Education.

 

 

Military Engineering Institute.
Military Engineering Institute (author-Eurico Zimbres).

 

 

The Portuguese language is the official and national language, and thus the primary language taught in schools. English and Spanish are also part of the official high school curriculum. There are also international schools, such as the American School of Rio de Janeiro, Our Lady of Mercy School, the Corcovado German School, the Lycée Français and the British School of Rio de Janeiro.

 

 

 

 

Educational institutions.

 

 

Centre of Human Science of the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro
Centre of Human Science of the Federal University of the State of Rio de Janeiro (author- Pallastrelli).

 

 

The city has several universities and research institutes. The Ministry of Education has certified approximately 99 upper-learning institutions in Rio. The most prestigious university is the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, the fifth best in Latin America, and the second best in Brazil, second only to the University of São Paulo, the best in Latin America, according to the QS World University Rankings.

 

 

Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (author-Fulviusbsas).
 

 

Some notable higher education institutions are:

  • Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ);
  • Federal University of the Rio de Janeiro state (UNIRIO);
  • Rio de Janeiro State University (UERJ);
  • Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRRJ, often nicknamed Rural);
  • Fluminense Federal University (UFF);
  • Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio);
  • Getúlio Vargas Foundation (FGV);
  • Military Institute of Engineering (IME);
  • Superior Institute of Technology in Computer Science of Rio de Janeiro (IST-Rio);
  • College of Publicity and Marketing (ESPM);
  • National Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA);
  • Federal Center of Technological Education Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET/RJ).

There are more than 137 upper-learning institutions in whole Rio de Janeiro state.

 

 

Pedro II School.
Pedro II School, the oldest among schools in the city, and the second oldest in Brazil (author- Cyro A. Silva).

 

 

 

 

Educational system.

 

Primary schools are largely under municipal administration, while the state plays a more significant role in the extensive network of secondary schools. There are also a small number of schools under federal administration, as is the case of Pedro II School, Colégio de Aplicação da UFRJ and the Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica of Rio de Janeiro (CEFET-RJ). In addition, Rio has an ample offering of private schools that provide education at all levels. Rio is home to many colleges and universities. The literacy rate for cariocas aged 10 and older is nearly 95 percent, well above the national average.

The Rio de Janeiro State University (public), Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (public), Brazilian Institute of Capital Markets (private) and Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro (private) are among the country’s top institutions of higher education. Other institutes of higher learning include the Colégio Regina Coeli in Usina, notable for having its own 3 ft (914 mm) narrow gauge funicular railway on its grounds.

In Rio, there were 1,033 primary schools with 25,594 teachers and 667,788 students in 1995. There are 370 secondary schools with 9,699 teachers and 227,892 students. There are 53 University-preparatory schools with 14,864 teachers and 154,447 students. The city has six major universities and 47 private schools of higher learning.

 

 

 

 

 

Culture and contemporary life.

 

 

Museum of Modern Art.
Museum of Modern Art (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

 

Rio de Janeiro is a main cultural hub in Brazil. Its architecture embraces churches and buildings dating from the 16th to the 19th centuries, blending with the world-renowned designs of the 20th century. Rio was home to the Portuguese Imperial family and capital of the country for many years, and was influenced by Portuguese, English, and French architecture.

Rio de Janeiro has inherited a strong cultural role from the past. In the late 19th century, there were sessions held of the first Brazilian film and since then, several production cycles have spread out, eventually placing Rio at the forefront of experimental and national cinema. The Rio de Janeiro International Film Festivalhas been held annually since 1999. Rio currently brings together the main production centers of Brazilian television. Major international films set in Rio de Janeiro include Blame it on Rio; the James Bond film Moonraker; the Oscar award-winning, critically acclaimed Central Station by Walter Salles who is also one of Brazil’s best-known directors; and the Oscar award-winning historical drama, Black Orpheus, which depicted the early days of Carnaval in Rio de Janeiro. Internationally famous, Brazilian-made movies illustrating a darker side of Rio de Janeiro include Elite Squad and City of God.

Rio has many important cultural landmarks, such as the Biblioteca Nacional (National Library), one of the largest libraries in the world with collections totalling more than 9 million items; the Theatro Municipal; the National Museum of Fine Arts; the Carmen Miranda Museum; the Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden; the Parque Lage; the Quinta da Boa Vista; the Imperial Square; the Brazilian Academy of Letters; the Museu de Arte Moderna do Rio de Janeiro; and the Natural History Museum.

 

 

 

 

 

Tourism and recreation.

 

 

Aerial view of the Statue of Christ the Redeemer.
Aerial view of the Statue of Christ the Redeemer (Rafael Rabello de Barros).

 

 

 

Museum of Tomorrow, designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava.
Museum of Tomorrow, designed by Spanish architect Santiago Calatrava (author-Caio Costa Ribeiro).

 

 

Rio de Janeiro is Brazil’s primary tourist attraction and resort. It receives the most visitors per year of any city in South America with 2.82 million international tourists a year. The city sports world-class hotels, approximately 80 kilometres of beaches and the famous Corcovado and Sugarloaf mountains. While the city has in past had a thriving tourism sector, the industry entered a decline in the last quarter of the 20th century. Annual international airport arrivals dropped from 621,000 to 378,000 and average hotel occupancy dropped to 50% between 1985 and 1993.

The fact that Brasília replaced Rio de Janeiro as the Brazilian capital in 1960 and that São Paulo replaced Rio as the country’s commercial, financial and cultural main center during the mid-20th century, has also been cited as a leading cause of the decline. Rio de Janeiro’s government has since undertaken to modernise the city’s economy, reduce its chronic social inequalities, and improve its commercial standing as part of an initiative for the regeneration of the tourism industry.

The city is an important global LGBT destination, 1 million LGBT tourists visit the city of Rio de Janeiro each year. The Rua Farme de Amoedo is located in Ipanema, a famous neighborhood in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro. The street and the nearby beach, famous tourist spots, are remarkable for their popularity in the LGBT community. Rio de Janeiro is the most awarded destination by World Travel Awards in the South American category of “best destination”.

 

 

 

 

Literature.

 

Brazilian Academy of Letters.
Brazilian Academy of Letters (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

 

After Brazilian independence from Portugal in 1822, Rio de Janeiro quickly developed a European-style bourgeois cultural life, including numerous newspapers, in which most 19th-century novels were initially published in serial. Joaquim Manuel de Macedo’s A Moreninha (1884) was perhaps the first successful novel in Brazil and inaugurates a recurrent 19th-century theme: a romantic relationship between idealistic young people in spite of cruelties of social fortune. Rio in recent year has had a scheme where adults aged 18 to 25 where made to have literacy tests and education.The first notable work of realism focusing on the urban lower-middle class is Manuel Antônio de Almeida’s Memórias de um sargento de milícias (1854), which presents a series of picaresque but touching scenes, and evokes the transformation of a town into a city with suggestive nostalgia. Romantic and realist modes both flourished through the late 19th century and often overlapped within works. The most famous author of Rio de Janeiro, however, was Machado de Assis, that is also widely regarded as the greatest writer of Brazilian literature and considered the introducer of Realism in Brazil, with the publication of The Posthumous Memoirs of Bras Cubas (1881); he had commented and criticized the political and social events of the city and country such as the abolition of slavery in 1888 and the transition from Empire to Republic with his numerous chronicles published in newspapers of the time. Much of his short stories and novels, like Quincas Borba (1891) and Dom Casmurro (1899), are placed in Rio.

 

 

 

 

Libraries.

 

 

National Library of Brazil.
National Library of Brazil (author-Halleypo).

 

 

Royal Portuguese Reading Room.
Royal Portuguese Reading Room (author-Cyro A. Silva).

 

 

The Biblioteca Nacional (National Library of Brazil) ranks as one of the largest libraries in the world. It is also the largest library in all of Latin America. Located in Cinelândia, the National Library was originally created by the King of Portugal, in 1810. As with many of Rio de Janeiro’s cultural monuments, the library was originally off-limits to the general public. The most valuable collections in the library include: 4,300 items donated by Barbosa Machado including a precious collection of rare brochures detailing the History of Portugal and Brazil; 2,365 items from the 17th and 18th centuries that were previously owned by Antônio de Araújo de Azevedo, the “Count of Barca”, including the 125 volume set of prints “Le Grand Théâtre de l’Univers;” a collection of documents regarding the Jesuítica Province of Paraguay and the “Region of Prata;” and the Teresa Cristina Maria Collection, donated by Emperor Pedro II. The collection contains 48,236 items. Individual items of special interest include a rare first edition of Os Lusíadas by Luis de Camões, published in 1584; two copies of the Mogúncia Bible; and a first edition of Handel’s Messiah.

The Portuguese Royal jolie papillon is located at Rua Luís de Camões, in the Centro (Downtown). The institution was founded in 1837 by a group of forty-three Portuguese immigrants, political refugees, to promote culture among the Portuguese community in the then capital of Empire. A history of the Brazilian Academy of Letters is linked to the Royal Cabinet, since the five solemn.

 

 

 

 

Music.

 

 

The official song of Rio de Janeiro is “Cidade Maravilhosa”, which means “marvelous city”. The song is considered the civic anthem of Rio, and is always the favourite song during Rio’s Carnival in February. Rio de Janeiro is with São Paulo, the main centre of the urban music movement in Brazil.

Rio was popularised by the hit song “Garota de Ipanema” (The Girl from Ipanema), composed by Antônio Carlos Jobim and Vinicius de Moraes and recorded by Astrud Gilberto and João Gilberto, Frank Sinatra, and Ella Fitzgerald. It is also the main key song of the bossa nova, a musical genre that was born in Rio. A genre unique to Rio and Brazil as a whole is Funk Carioca. While samba music continues to act as the national unifying agent in Rio, Funk Carioca found a strong community following in Brazil. With its genesis in the 1970s as the modern black pop music from the United States, it evolved in the 1990s to describe a variety of electronic music associated with the current US black music scene, including hip hop, modern soul, and house music.”

Brazil’s return to democracy in 1985 after over 20 years of military authoritarian rule, and the subsequent end of rampant censorship, allowed for a new freedom of expression which promoted creativity and experimentation in expressive culture. Commercial and cultural imports from Europe and North America have often influenced Brazil’s own cultural output. For example, the hip hop that has stemmed from New York is localized into forms of musical production such as Funk Carioca and Brazilian hip hop. Bands from Rio de Janeiro also had influence in the mid-to-late development of the Punk in Brazil, and that of Brazilian thrash metal. Democratic renewal also allowed for the recognition and acceptance of this diversification of Brazilian culture. Rio de Janeiro is also the homeland of the biggest entertainment event in the world, the Rock in Rio Festival, which had editions in 1985, 1991, 2001, 2011 and 2013.

 

 

 

 

 

Theatre.

 

Municipal Theatre of Rio de Janeiro.
Municipal Theatre of Rio de Janeiro (author-Guilherme Lobo).

 

 

 

Theatro Municipal.

 

 

Rio Janeiro ‘s Theatro Municipal is one of the most resplendent buildings in the downtown area of Rio de Janeiro. Home of one of the largest stages in Latin America and one of Brazil’s best known venues for opera, ballet, and classical music. The building was inspired by the Paris Opera of Garnier, and built in 1905 by the architect Francisco Pereira Passos. The statues on the top, of two women representing Poetry and Music, are by Rodolfo Bernadelli, and the interior is rich with furnishings and fine paintings. Founded in 1909, the Teatro Municipal was designed after the famed opera house in Paris with close to 1,700 seats. Its interior includes turn of the century stained glass from France, ceilings of rose-colored marble and a 1,000 pound crystal bead chandelier surrounded by a painting of the “Dance of the Hours”. The exterior walls of the building are dotted with inscriptions bearing the names of famous Brazilians as well as many other international celebrities.

 

City of Arts.
City of Arts (author-Osmar Carioca).

 

 

 

 

 

Cidade da Música.

 

Cidade das Artes (City of Arts) is a cultural complex located in Barra da Tijuca in the Southwest Zone of Rio de Janeiro, which was originally planned to open in 2004. Formally known as “Cidade da Música” (City of Music), it has an inauguration anticipated for the beginning of 2013. The project will host the Brazilian Symphony Orchestra becoming a main center for music as will be the largest modern concert hall in South America, with 1,780 seats. The complex spans approximately 90 thousand square metres (1 million square feet) and also features a chamber music hall, three theaters, and 12 rehearsal rooms. From the terrace there is a panoramic view of the region, from Barra’s borught. The building was designed by the French architect Christian de Portzamparc and construction was funded by the city of Rio de Janeiro.

 

 

 

 

 

Cultural events.

New Year’s Eve.

 

New Year's Eve Fireworks at Copacabana Beach
New Year’s Eve Fireworks at Copacabana Beach (Porto Bay Hotels & Resorts-on Flickr).

 

Every 31 December, 2.5 million people gather at Copacabana Beach to celebrate New Year’s in Rio de Janeiro. The crowd, mostly dressed in white, celebrates all night at the hundreds of different shows and events along the beach. It is the second largest celebration only next to the Carnival. People celebrate the New Year by sharing chilled champagne. It is considered good luck to shake the champagne bottle and spray around at midnight. Chilled champagne adds to the spirit of the festivities.

 

 

 

 

 

Carnival.

 

 

Banda de Ipanema.
Banda de Ipanema, one of the largest carnival blocks of the city (author-Allbrazilian).

 

Carnaval, is an annual celebration in the Roman Catholic tradition that allows merry-making and red meat consumption before the more sober 40 days of Lent penance which culminates with Holy or Passion Week and Easter. The tradition of Carnaval parades was probably influenced by the French or German courts and the custom was brought by the Portuguese or Brazilian Imperial families who had Bourbon and Austrian ancestors. Up until the time of the marchinhas, the revelry was more of a high class and Caucasian-led event. The influence of the African-Brazilian drums and music was more noticeable from the first half of the 20th century. Rio de Janeiro has many Carnaval choices, including the famous samba school (Escolas de Samba) parades in the sambadrome exhibition center and the popular blocos de carnaval, street revelry, which parade in almost every corner of the city. The most famous ones are:

  • Cordão do Bola Preta: Parades in the centre of the city. It is one of the most traditional carnavals. In 2008, 500,000 people attended in one day. In 2011, a record 2 million people attended the city covering three different metro stations!
  • Suvaco do Cristo: Band that parades in the Botanic Garden, directly below the Redeemer statue’s arm. The name translates to ‘Christ’s armpit’ in English, and was chosen for that reason.
  • Carmelitas: Band that was supposedly created by nuns, but in fact is just a theme chosen by the band. It parades in Santa Teresa, a bairro from where one can see beautiful panoramas.
  • Simpatia é Quase Amor: One of the most popular parades in Ipanema. Translates as ‘Friendliness is almost love’.
  • Banda de Ipanema: The most traditional in Ipanema. It attracts a wide range of revellers, including families and a wide spectrum of the LGBT/Queer population (notably spectacular drag queens).

In 1840, the first Carnaval was celebrated with a masked ball. As years passed, adorned floats and costumed revelers became a tradition among the celebrants. Carnaval is known as a historic root of Brazilian music.

 

 

Samba Parade at the Sambódromo,
Samba Parade at the Sambódromo (Sambadrome) during the Rio Carnaval (author- Michael Baldwin).

 

 

Rock in Rio.

 

The World Stage at the "Rock in Rio 4" in Rio de Janeiro.
The World Stage at the “Rock in Rio 4” in Rio de Janeiro (author-Flaviohmg).
 

 

 

“Rock in Rio” is a music festival conceived by entrepreneur Roberto Medina for the first time in 1985, and since its creation, recognized as the largest music festival in the Latin world and the largest in the world, with 1.5 million people attending the first event, 700,000 attending the second and fourth, about 1.2 million attending the third, and about 350,000 people attending each of the 3 Lisbon events. It was originally organized in Rio de Janeiro, from where the name comes from, has become a world level event and, in 2004, had its first edition abroad in Lisbon, Portugal, before Madrid, Spain and Las Vegas, United States. The festival is considered the eighth best in the world by the specialized site Fling Festival.

 

 

 

Olympics.

 

 

The 2007 Pan American Games Opening Ceremony in Maracanã Stadium.
The 2007 Pan American Games Opening Ceremony in Maracanã Stadium (author-Ricardo Stuckert).

 

 

On 2 October 2009, the International Olympic Committee selected Rio de Janeiro to host the 2016 Summer Olympics. Rio made their first bid for the 1936 Summer Olympics, but lost to Berlin. They later made bids for the 2004 and 2012 Games, but failed to become a candidate city both times. Those games were awarded to Athens and London respectively. Rio will become the first Brazilian and South American city to host the games. Rio de Janeiro will also be the first city in the southern hemisphere outside of Australia to host the game – Melbourne in 1956 and Sydney in 2000. In July 2007, Rio successfully organized and hosted the XV Pan American Games.

Rio de Janeiro also hosted the 2011 Military World Games from 15–24 July 2011. The 2011 Military World Games were the largest military sports event ever held in Brazil, with approximately 4,900 athletes from 108 countries competing in 20 sports

 

 

 

 

 

Other sports.

 

 

Footvolley, one of the most popular sports in the beaches of the city.
Footvolley, one of the most popular sports in the beaches of the city (author-Leandro Neumann Ciuffo).

 

 

The Jacarepaguá circuit in Rio de Janeiro was the site for the Formula One Brazilian Grand Prix from 1978 to 1989. Rio de Janeiro also hosted the MotoGP Brazilian Grand Prix from 1995 to 2004 and the Champ Car event from 1996 to 1999. WCT/WQS surfing championships were contested on the beaches from 1985 to 2001. The Rio Champions Cup Tennis tournament is held in the spring. As part of its preparations to host the 2007 Pan American Games, Rio built a new stadium, Estádio Olímpico João Havelange, to hold 45,000 people. It was named after Brazilian ex-FIFA president João Havelange. The stadium is owned by the city of Rio de Janeiro, but it was rented to Botafogo de Futebol e Regatas for 20 years. Rio de Janeiro has also a multi-purpose arena, the HSBC Arena.

The Brazilian Dance/Sport/Martial art Capoeira is very popular. Other popular sports are basketball, beach football, beach volleyball, Beach American Football, footvolley, surfing, kite surfing, hang gliding, motor racing, Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu, sailing, and competitive rowing. Another sport that is highly popular in beaches of Rio is called “Frescobol” (pronounced: [fɾe̞ɕko̞ˈbɔw]), a type of beach tennis. Rio de Janeiro is also paradise for rock climbers, with hundreds of routes all over the city, ranging from easy boulders to highly technical big wall climbs, all inside the city. The most famous, Rio’s granite mountain, the Sugar Loaf (Pão de Açúcar), is an example, with routes from the easy third grade (American 5.4, French 3) to the extremely difficult ninth grade (5.13/8b), up to 280 metres (919 feet).

Horse racing events are held Thursday nights and weekend afternoons at the Jockey Club. An impressive place with excellent grass and dirt tracks, it runs the best horses in the nation. Hang gliding in Rio de Janeiro started in the mid-1970s and quickly proved to be well-suited for this town, because of its geography: steep mountains encounter the Atlantic Ocean, which provide excellent take-off locations and great landing zones on the beach.

One of the most popular sea sports in the city is yachting. The main yacht clubs are in Botafogo area that extends halfway between Copacabana and the center of town. Though the most exclusive and interesting is probably the Rio Yacht club, where high society makes it a point to congregate. Most yacht clubs are open to members only and gate crashing is not easy. Copacabana is also a great place to do surfing as well as “Arpoador of Ipanema” beach and “Praia dos Bandeirantes”. The sea at these beaches is rough and dangerous, the best surfers from Brazil and other sites of the world come to these beaches to prove themselves.

 

 

 

 

 

Transportation.

Airports and ports.

 

 

Rio de Janeiro-Galeão International Airport.
Rio de Janeiro, Galeão International Airport.(author-Wilson Dias).

 

 

 

Airplane and boat near the Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont National Airport.
Airplane and boat near the Rio de Janeiro-Santos Dumont National Airport (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

 

 

Zeppelin (Airship) Hangar at Bartolomeu de Gusmão Airport in Santa Cruz's neighbourhood.
Zeppelin (Airship) Hangar at Bartolomeu de Gusmão Airport in Santa Cruz’s neighbourhood (author-Rcandre).

 

 

The City of Rio de Janeiro is served by the following airports for use:

  • Galeão-Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport: used for all international and most of the domestic flights. Since August 2004, with the transfer of many flights from Santos-Dumont Airport, Rio de Janeiro International Airport has returned to being the main doorway to the city. Besides linking Rio to the rest of Brazil with domestic flights, Galeão has connections to 19 countries. It has a capacity to handle up to 15 million users a year in two passenger terminals. It is located 20 km (12 mi) from downtown Rio. The airport complex also has Brazil’s longest runway at 4,000 m (13,123.36 ft), and one of South America’s largest cargo logistics terminals.
  • Santos Dumont Airport: used mainly by the services to São Paulo, some short- and medium-haul domestic flights, and general aviation. Located on Guanabara Bay just a few blocks from the heart of downtown Rio, during the 1990s Santos-Dumont began to outgrow its capacity, besides diverging from its specialization on short-hop flights, offering routes to other destinations in Brazil. For this reason, in late 2004 Santos-Dumont returned to its original condition of operating only shuttle flights to and from Congonhas Airport in São Paulo, along with regional aviation. The passenger terminal is presently undergoing extensive renovation and expansion to offer more convenience and comfort to users of the Rio–São Paulo shuttle service.
  • Jacarepaguá-Roberto Marinho Airport: used by general aviation and home to the Aeroclube do Brasil (Brasil Flying club). The airport is located in the district of Baixada de Jacarepaguá, within the municipality of Rio de Janeiro approximately 30 km (19 mi) from the city center.

Military airports include:

  • Galeão Air Force Base: A Brazilian Air Force airbase, sharing some facilities with Galeão – Antônio Carlos Jobim International Airport;
  • Santa Cruz Air Force Base: A Brazilian Air Force airbase. Formerly called Bartolomeu de Gusmão Airport, it was built by the Luftschiffbau Zeppelin. Today it is one of the most important Air Force Bases in Brazil;
  • Afonsos Air Force Base: One of the historical Brazilian Air Force airbases. It is also the location of the University of the Air Force (Universidade da Força Aérea), the Museu Aeroespacial, and where air shows take place.

The Port of Rio de Janeiro is Brazil’s third busiest port in terms of cargo volume, and it is the center for cruise vessels. Located on the west coast of the Guanabara Bay, it serves the States of Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Minas Gerais, and Espírito Santo. The port is managed by Companhia Docas de Rio de Janeiro. The Port of Rio de Janeiro covers territory from the Mauá Pier in the east to the Wharf of the Cashew in the north. The Port of Rio de Janeiro contains almost seven thousand metres (23 thousand feet) of continuous wharf and an 883-metre (2,897-foot) pier. The Companhia Docas de Rio de Janeiro administers directly the Wharf of the Gamboa general cargo terminal; the wheat terminal with two warehouses capable of moving 300 tons of grains; General Load Terminal 2 with warehouses covering over 20 thousand square metres (215 thousand square feet); and the Wharves of Are Cristovao with terminals for wheat and liquid bulk.

At the Wharf of Gamboa, leaseholders operate terminals for sugar, paper, iron and steel products. Leaseholders at the Wharf of the Cashew operate terminals for roll-on/roll-off cargoes, containers, and liquid bulk. In 2004, the Port of Rio de Janeiro handled over seven million tons of cargo on almost 1700 vessels. In 2004, the Port of Rio de Janeiro handled over two million tons of containerized cargo in almost 171 thousand TEUs. The port handled 852 thousand tons of wheat, more than 1.8 million tons of iron and steel, over a million tons of liquid bulk cargo, almost 830 thousand tons of dry bulk, over five thousand tons of paper goods, and over 78 thousand vehicles. In 2003, over 91 thousand passengers moved through the Port of Rio Janeiro on 83 cruise vessels.

 

 

 

 

 

Public transportation.

 

 

Public transport map.
Public transport map (author-Maximilian Dörrbecker (Chumwa)).

 

 

In Rio de Janeiro, buses are the main form of public transportation. There are nearly 440 municipal bus lines serving over four million passengers every day, in addition to intercity lines. Although cheap and frequent, Rio’s transportation policy has been moving towards trains and subway in order to reduce surface congestion and increase carrier capacity. Rio’s public transportation service has been a target of many critics and the motive of the 2013’s protests and manifestations that started in São Paulo and spread through the entire country. According to the people, the raise in the bus and subway fares are invalid, seeing that the amount charged is too high for the low quality of the services.

 

 

 

 

 

Subway and urban trains.

 

 

New urban train from SuperVia
New urban train from SuperVia (author-Henrique Freire).

 

 

 
Rio de Janeiro Metro Station.
Rio de Janeiro Metro Station (author-Cristiane Sousa).

 

 

Rio de Janeiro has two subway lines (Metrô Rio) with 42 kilometres (26 mi) and 32 stations plus several commuter rail lines. Future plans include building a third subway line to Niterói and São Gonçalo, including an underwater tunnel beneath Guanabara Bay to supplement the ferry service currently there. The Metro is Rio’s safest and cleanest form of public transport.

The two lines serve the city seven days a week. The first line runs from General Osório in Ipanema to Uruguai Station in Tijuca. The second line runs from Botafogo, sharing ten stations with the first line, terminating at Pavuna in northern Rio. The Metro runs services from 05:00 am to 12:00 midnight, Monday to Saturday, and from 07:00 am to 11:00 pm Sundays and public holidays. People can buy tickets for the Metro at train stations and can either buy single tickets or rechargeable cards. People can also buy tickets for the Metro at buses that make connect places far from the Metro. Integration with buses are possible in several forms, an integrated Metro and bus ticket for a single journey is available for some lines paying an additional fee and is known as an Integração Expressa (Express Integration) and Expresso Barra, the other possibility is taking the Metro na Superfície (Surface Metro) with no additional fee.

SuperVia connects the city of Rio with other locations in Greater Rio de Janeiro with surface trains.

 

 

 

 

Bus.

 

Bus in the city.
Bus in the city (author-Eduardo P).

 

Hybrid bus.
Hybrid bus with electric traction developed by the Alberto Luiz Coimbra Institute of Post-Graduation and Research in Engineering (COPPE) of the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (author-Agência CNT de Notícias).

 

 

City buses cost about R$3.40 to ride. They come in both non-air conditioned (R$3.40) and air conditioned versions (R$3–R$5.40). The system may be relatively safe by day but less so at night. Integration of bus lines has been recently implemented, allowing users to take two non-air conditioned bus rides in two hours paying just one ticket. It is necessary to have a registered electronic card (the “Bilhete Único Carioca (BUC)“) in order to benefit of this system.

Another type of local bus is called the “Frescão” (air-conditioned). These buses run several routes, the main being from Centro through Botafogo, Copacabana and Ipanema to Leblon (and vice versa), and from the International Airport to Barra, through the beach road. They are air conditioned—about 22 °C (72 °F)—more upscale/comfortable and cost between R$6.00–R$12.00. However, it is only available during weekdays. The buses also run more frequently during the rush hours in the morning and evening. Going in the direction of Centro (city center), the bus can be flagged down on the beach road (buses with plaques showing “Castelo”).

 

 

 

 

 

Other.

 

 

Santa Teresa Tram.
Santa Teresa Tram (author-Halley Pacheco de Oliveira).

 

 

 

VLT (Light rail) in Downtown Rio.
VLT (Light rail) in Downtown Rio (author-Fernando Frazão).

 

The most geographically close sister city to Rio that is on the other side of Guanabara Bay is Niterói. Many people who live in Niterói, as well its neighbouring municipalities São Gonçalo and Maricá, commute to Rio de Janeiro to study and work. There are several ferry services that operate between the Rio Centro (Praça XV) and Niterói (Centro and Charitas). There is a traditional boat as well as several “fast cat” hydrofoil boats. One of the city neighborhoods is Paquetá Island, which can only be accessed by ferryboats or hydrofoil boats. The ferryboat to Paquetá leaves every hour, from early in the morning until around midnight. There is also a ferry to Cocotá.

Rio de Janeiro has the oldest operating electric tramway in Brazil and South America, now mainly used by tourists and less by daily commuters. Santa Teresa Tram or bondinho, has been preserved both as a piece of history and as a quick, fun, cheap way of getting to one of the most quirky parts of the city. The tram station is near Cinelândia and the Municipal Theatre. Trams leave every half an hour between 6:00 am and 11:00 pm. A ticket is just R$0.60 (US$0.35), one way or return, and people pay as they pass through the barrier to the right of the entrance. The Santa Teresa Tram (known locally as the “bonde”) in the Brazilian city of Rio de Janeiro commenced electric operation in 1891, replacing horse-drawn trams and expanding the horse-drawn route. At this time the gauge was altered to 1,100 mm (43.31 in), which remains the case today. The tram cars which are currently in operation are Brazilian-built, are of the cross-bench open sided design, and are fitted with trolley poles.

After a derail occurred on 28 August 2011, which left seven dead, tram service was suspended to improve the system, and would be reopened in 2014, just before the 2014 FIFA World Cup but after postponements it was finally reopened in July 2015. While it is being improved, two lines costing R$0.60 carry passengers from Santa Teresa to Centro: SE014 and SE006.

In order to improve traffic in the central zone, the prefecture started the project “Porto Maravilha” (Marvelous Port), which foresees a modern tramway system. It will have five lines and will connect the central business district to Santos Dumont Airport, the ferry station at XV Square, the Novo Rio terminal bus station at Santo Cristo, and the future high-speed rail Leopoldina station between Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo.

The city will also have the VLT system, a network of light rail that is currently under construction in the city of Rio de Janeiro, aimed at integrating the city center, the Santos Dumont Airport and Rio-Niterói barge to the port region city. It is expected that the system is operational by 2016 at the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro, and must withdraw at least 60% of buses and 15% of the cars that are currently circulating in the city center.

 

 

 

 

 

Road transport.

 

TransOeste Bus Rapid Transit (BRT).
TransOeste Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) (author-Mario Roberto Duran Ortiz)).

 

 

Driving in Rio de Janeiro, as in most large cities of Brazil, might not be the best choice due to the large car fleet. The city is served by a number of expressways, like Linha Vermelha, Linha Amarela, Avenida Brasil, Avenida das Américas and Avenida Infante Dom Henrique (Aterro do Flamengo); in spite of this, traffic jams are very common. Due to the organization of the 2016 Olympics the city is installing four BRT systems to link Barra da Tijuca with other major neighbourhoods: TransOlimpica (between Barra and Deodoro); TransBrasil (over the Avenida Brasil expressway); TransCarioca (between Barra and the Galeão International Airport); and TransOeste (between Barra and Santa Cruz, over Avenida das Américas).

 

 

 

 

Highways.

 

 

Rio-Niterói Bridge.
Rio-Niterói Bridge ( author-Joao Carlos Medau).

 

 

In Brazil, most interstate transportation is done by road. A large terminal for long-distance buses is in the Santo Cristo neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro. There are also two port facilities for cargo and passenger ships (Rio de Janeiro and Sepetiba port). Rio has roads to all neighbour States. Some roads (like Via Dutra, to São Paulo, and a stretch of the BR-101 which covers the Rio-Niterói bridge) were chartered to private enterprises. The quality of the highways improved much, but was accompanied by a significant increase of the toll fees. From São Paulo: take the BR-116 (Presidente Dutra Federal Highway) or the BR-101 (Rio-Santos Federal Highway). From Belo Horizonte: BR-040. From Salvador: BR-101 or BR-324/BR-116/BR-393/BR-040.

 

 

 

 

Bicycles.

 

The city has 160 km (99 mi) of cycle paths that, wherever they exist, are very much preferable to riding in the city’s traffic. Most paths run alongside beaches and extend intermittently from the Marina da Glória, Centro, through Flamengo, Copacabana and Ipanema, to Barra da Tijuca and Recreio dos Bandeirantes. six kilometres (3.7 miles) of cycle paths traverse the Tijuca National Park.

The Bike Rio began operations in October 2011. This bicycle sharing system is sponsored by the municipal government of Rio de Janeiro in partnership with Banco Itaú. The bike sharing system has 600 bicycles available at 60 rental stations located in 14 neighborhoods throughout the city.

 

 

 

 

International relations.

Twin towns – Sister cities

Rio de Janeiro is twinned with:

  • AustraliaAdelaide, Australia
  • United StatesAtlanta, United States
  • AzerbaijanBaku, Azerbaijan
  • GermanyCologne, Germany
  • PortugalGuimarães, Portugal
  • TurkeyIstanbul, Turkey
  • IsraelJerusalem, Israel
  • TaiwanKaohsiung, Taiwan
  • UkraineKiev, Ukraine
  • United KingdomLiverpool, United Kingdom
  • United StatesMiami Beach, Florida, United States
  • BrazilNatal, Brazil
  • United StatesNewark, New Jersey, United States
  • United StatesOklahoma City, United States
  • ItalyPaola, Italy
  • PolandWarsaw, Poland

 

 

 

 

 

Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities.

 

Rio de Janeiro is part of the Union of Ibero-American Capital Cities from 12 October 1982 establishing brotherly relations with the following cities:

  • AndorraAndorra la Vella, Andorra
  • ParaguayAsunción, Paraguay
  • ColombiaBogotá, Colombia
  • ArgentinaBuenos Aires, Argentina
  • VenezuelaCaracas, Venezuela
  • GuatemalaGuatemala City, Guatemala
  • CubaHavana, Cuba
  • EcuadorQuito, Ecuador
  • BoliviaLa Paz, Bolivia
  • PortugalLisbon, Portugal
  • SpainMadrid, Spain
  • NicaraguaManagua, Nicaragua[188]
  • MexicoMexico City, Mexico
  • UruguayMontevideo, Uruguay
  • PanamaPanama City, Panama
  • Brazil Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
  • Costa RicaSan Jose, Costa Rica
  • Puerto RicoSan Juan, Puerto Rico
  • El SalvadorSan Salvador, El Salvador
  • ChileSantiago, Chile
  • Dominican RepublicSanto Domingo, Dominican Republic
  • HondurasTegucigalpa, Honduras

 

 

 

 

 

Partner cities.

 

Rio de Janeiro has the following partner/friendship cities:

  • GermanyBerlin, Germany
  • United StatesKansas City, United States
  • RussiaMoscow, Russia
  • United StatesNew York City, United States
  • FranceNice, France
  • FranceParis, France
  • United StatesPhiladelphia, United States
  • JapanTokyo, Japan

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  41. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  42. Please let me know if you’re looking for a author for your blog. You have some really good articles and I believe I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d love to write some articles for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please shoot me an email if interested. Thanks!

  43. With havin so much content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright violation? My blog has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either authored myself or outsourced but it seems a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my permission. Do you know any solutions to help prevent content from being stolen? I’d definitely appreciate it.

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  46. Hello there! I know this is kinda off topic however I’d figured I’d ask. Would you be interested in trading links or maybe guest writing a blog post or vice-versa? My site discusses a lot of the same topics as yours and I feel we could greatly benefit from each other. If you might be interested feel free to send me an e-mail. I look forward to hearing from you! Wonderful blog by the way!

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  51. With havin so much content do you ever run into any problems of plagorism or copyright infringement? My site has a lot of exclusive content I’ve either written myself or outsourced but it appears a lot of it is popping it up all over the internet without my agreement. Do you know any ways to help prevent content from being stolen? I’d definitely appreciate it.

  52. My coder is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses. But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on several websites for about a year and am concerned about switching to another platform. I have heard great things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I can transfer all my wordpress posts into it? Any kind of help would be really appreciated!

  53. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright infringement? My website has a lot of unique content I’ve either authored myself or outsourced but it looks like a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my permission. Do you know any ways to help reduce content from being stolen? I’d genuinely appreciate it.

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  56. My partner and I absolutely love your blog and find a lot of your post’s to be exactly I’m looking for. Would you offer guest writers to write content for you? I wouldn’t mind writing a post or elaborating on a few of the subjects you write about here. Again, awesome site!

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  65. When I initially commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get four e-mails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove me from that service? Many thanks!

  66. I was curious if you ever considered changing the layout of your blog? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or 2 images. Maybe you could space it out better?

  67. Wonderful blog! Do you have any helpful hints for aspiring writers? I’m hoping to start my own website soon but I’m a little lost on everything. Would you suggest starting with a free platform like WordPress or go for a paid option? There are so many options out there that I’m completely overwhelmed .. Any suggestions? Thanks!

  68. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  69. My coder is trying to persuade me to move to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the costs. But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on various websites for about a year and am anxious about switching to another platform. I have heard very good things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I can import all my wordpress posts into it? Any help would be really appreciated!

  70. Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a few of the images aren’t loading correctly. I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two different browsers and both show the same outcome.

  71. Please let me know if you’re looking for a article author for your blog. You have some really good articles and I think I would be a good asset. If you ever want to take some of the load off, I’d absolutely love to write some material for your blog in exchange for a link back to mine. Please send me an email if interested. Thank you!

  72. Have you ever considered writing an e-book or guest authoring on other websites? I have a blog based upon on the same topics you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my readers would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to shoot me an email.

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  77. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  78. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you create this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz answer back as I’m looking to create my own blog and would like to find out where u got this from. appreciate it

  79. Hey! I just wanted to ask if you ever have any trouble with hackers? My last blog (wordpress) was hacked and I ended up losing months of hard work due to no back up. Do you have any solutions to prevent hackers?

  80. Hmm it seems like your website ate my first comment (it was extremely long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I wrote and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I too am an aspiring blog writer but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any helpful hints for first-time blog writers? I’d definitely appreciate it.

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  84. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

  85. Have you ever thought about including a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is important and all. However think of if you added some great graphics or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with pics and video clips, this blog could undeniably be one of the best in its field. Great blog!

  86. Good day! This is kind of off topic but I need some help from an established blog. Is it very difficult to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty fast. I’m thinking about setting up my own but I’m not sure where to begin. Do you have any points or suggestions? Cheers

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  92. Hey there would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re working with? I’m looking to start my own blog soon but I’m having a hard time choosing between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your design and style seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something completely unique. P.S Sorry for being off-topic but I had to ask!

  93. Hey there just wanted to give you a quick heads up and let you know a few of the images aren’t loading correctly. I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers and both show the same results.

  94. Hey there! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this site? I’m getting sick and tired of WordPress because I’ve had problems with hackers and I’m looking at options for another platform. I would be awesome if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

  95. Hey there! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a group of volunteers and starting a new initiative in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us beneficial information to work on. You have done a wonderful job!

  96. Have you ever thought about writing an e-book or guest authoring on other websites? I have a blog centered on the same topics you discuss and would really like to have you share some stories/information. I know my visitors would appreciate your work. If you are even remotely interested, feel free to send me an email.

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  101. When I originally commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get four e-mails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove me from that service? Thanks!

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  107. With havin so much content and articles do you ever run into any issues of plagorism or copyright violation? My blog has a lot of completely unique content I’ve either written myself or outsourced but it looks like a lot of it is popping it up all over the web without my permission. Do you know any ways to help protect against content from being stolen? I’d genuinely appreciate it.

  108. I love your blog.. very nice colors & theme. Did you make this website yourself or did you hire someone to do it for you? Plz respond as I’m looking to design my own blog and would like to find out where u got this from. kudos

  109. Hey there just wanted to give you a brief heads up and let you know a few of the pictures aren’t loading properly. I’m not sure why but I think its a linking issue. I’ve tried it in two different internet browsers and both show the same outcome.

  110. Hello there! I know this is kinda off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for this site? I’m getting fed up of WordPress because I’ve had issues with hackers and I’m looking at alternatives for another platform. I would be awesome if you could point me in the direction of a good platform.

  111. Have you ever thought about adding a little bit more than just your articles? I mean, what you say is valuable and everything. However think of if you added some great photos or video clips to give your posts more, “pop”! Your content is excellent but with pics and video clips, this site could undeniably be one of the best in its field. Amazing blog!

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  125. Hi! This is kind of off topic but I need some guidance from an established blog. Is it very hard to set up your own blog? I’m not very techincal but I can figure things out pretty quick. I’m thinking about setting up my own but I’m not sure where to start. Do you have any tips or suggestions? Thanks

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  129. Hey I know this is off topic but I was wondering if you knew of any widgets I could add to my blog that automatically tweet my newest twitter updates. I’ve been looking for a plug-in like this for quite some time and was hoping maybe you would have some experience with something like this. Please let me know if you run into anything. I truly enjoy reading your blog and I look forward to your new updates.

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  135. My developer is trying to convince me to move to .net from PHP. I have always disliked the idea because of the expenses. But he’s tryiong none the less. I’ve been using Movable-type on several websites for about a year and am anxious about switching to another platform. I have heard excellent things about blogengine.net. Is there a way I can transfer all my wordpress posts into it? Any help would be greatly appreciated!

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  142. Hi would you mind sharing which blog platform you’re using? I’m planning to start my own blog soon but I’m having a tough time making a decision between BlogEngine/Wordpress/B2evolution and Drupal. The reason I ask is because your layout seems different then most blogs and I’m looking for something completely unique. P.S My apologies for being off-topic but I had to ask!

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  145. I was curious if you ever thought of changing the page layout of your blog? Its very well written; I love what youve got to say. But maybe you could a little more in the way of content so people could connect with it better. Youve got an awful lot of text for only having one or two pictures. Maybe you could space it out better?

  146. When I originally commented I clicked the “Notify me when new comments are added” checkbox and now each time a comment is added I get four e-mails with the same comment. Is there any way you can remove people from that service? Many thanks!

  147. Hmm it looks like your blog ate my first comment (it was super long) so I guess I’ll just sum it up what I wrote and say, I’m thoroughly enjoying your blog. I as well am an aspiring blog blogger but I’m still new to the whole thing. Do you have any tips for newbie blog writers? I’d definitely appreciate it.

  148. Write more, thats all I have to say. Literally, it seems as though you relied on the video to make your point. You definitely know what youre talking about, why waste your intelligence on just posting videos to your site when you could be giving us something informative to read?

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