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Lake Ontario, Canada-US

View of Lake Ontario from Toronto's CN Tower, showing Toronto Harbour, Toronto Islands, and the island airport (author: Janus Bahs Jacquet, 2008).

 

Waves in Lake Ontario, note the Toronto skyline in the background (author: SYSS Mouse, 2009).
Waves in Lake Ontario, note the Toronto skyline in the background (author: SYSS Mouse, 2009).

 

Lake Ontario (French: Lac Ontario) is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. It is surrounded on the north, west, and southwest by the Canadian province of Ontario, and on the south and east by the American state of New York, whose water boundaries meet in the middle of the lake. Ontario, Canada’s most populous province, was named for the lake. In the Wyandot (Huron) language, ontarío means “Lake of Shining Waters”. Its primary inlet is the Niagara River from Lake Erie. The last in the Great Lakes chain, Lake Ontario serves as the outlet to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence River.

 

 

 

 

Geography

 

Map of Lake Ontario (source: Google Maps).
Map of Lake Ontario (source: Google Maps).

 

Satellite's Map of Lake Ontario
Satellite’s Map of Lake Ontario (source: Google Maps).

 

Lake Ontario is the easternmost of the Great Lakes and the smallest in surface area (7,340 sq mi, 18,960 km2), although it exceeds Lake Erie in volume (393 cu mi, 1,639 km3). It is the 14th largest lake in the world. When its islands are included, the lake has a shoreline that is 712 miles (1,146 km) long. As the last lake in the Great Lakes’ hydrologic chain, Lake Ontario has the lowest mean surface elevation of the lakes at 243 feet (74 m) above sea level; 326 feet (99 m) lower than its neighbor upstream. Its maximum length is 193 statute miles (311 kilometres; 168 nautical miles) and its maximum width is 53 statute miles (85 km; 46 nmi). The lake’s average depth is 47 fathoms 1 foot (283 ft; 86 m), with a maximum depth of 133 fathoms 4 feet (802 ft; 244 m). The lake’s primary source is the Niagara River, draining Lake Erie, with the St. Lawrence River serving as the outlet. The drainage basin covers 24,720 square miles (64,030 km2). As with all the Great Lakes, water levels change both within the year (owing to seasonal changes in water input) and among years (owing to longer term trends in precipitation). These water level fluctuations are an integral part of lake ecology, and produce and maintain extensive wetlands. The lake also has an important freshwater fishery, although it has been negatively affected by factors including over-fishing, water pollution and invasive species.

 

Satellite's view of The Niagara River which is the primary water inlet for The Ontario Lake from Lake Erie (source: Google Maps).
Satellite’s view of The Niagara River which is the primary water inlet for The Ontario Lake from Lake Erie (source: Google Maps).

 

 

 

Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes (author: Phizzy, 2008).
Lake Ontario and the other Great Lakes (author: Phizzy, 2008).

 

 

Baymouth bars built by prevailing winds and currents have created a significant number of lagoons and sheltered harbors, mostly near (but not limited to) Prince Edward County, Ontario and the easternmost shores. Perhaps the best-known example is Toronto Bay, chosen as the site of the Upper Canada (Ontario) capital for its strategic harbour. Other prominent examples include Hamilton Harbour, Irondequoit Bay, Presqu’ile Bay, and Sodus Bay. The bars themselves are the sites of long beaches, such as Sandbanks Provincial Park and Sandy Island Beach State Park. These sand bars are often associated with large wetlands, which support large numbers of plant and animal species, as well as providing important rest areas for migratory birds. Presqu’ile, on the north shore of Lake Ontario, is particularly significant in this regard. One unique feature of the lake is the Z-shaped Bay of Quinte which separates Prince Edward County from the Ontario mainland, save for a 2-mile (3.2 km) isthmus near Trenton; this feature also supports many wetlands and aquatic plants, as well as associated fisheries.

Major rivers draining into Lake Ontario include the Niagara River, Don River, Humber River, Trent River, Cataraqui River, Genesee River, Oswego River, Black River, Little Salmon River, and the Salmon River.

 

 

 

 

 


Major rivers draining into Lake Ontario


Oswego River (New York)

 

The Oswego River as it passes through the city of Oswego (author: Dirk Ingo Franke, 2012).
The Oswego River as it passes through the city of Oswego (author: Dirk Ingo Franke, 2012).

 

The Oswego River /ɒsˈwɡ/ is a river in upstate New York in the United States. It is the second-largest river (after the Niagara River) flowing into Lake Ontario. James Fenimore Cooper’s novel The Pathfinder, or The Inland Sea is set in the Oswego River valley.

The name Oswego is a Mohawk name that means “flowing out”, or specifically, “small water flowing into that which is large”.

The Oswego River starts at the confluence of the Oneida River (flowing from Oneida Lake) and the Seneca River (flowing from Seneca Lake, Cayuga Lake, and Montezuma Marsh). The river drains an area of 5,122 square miles (13,266 km2), as large as the states of Rhode Island and Delaware together, comprising most of the Finger Lakes region of upstate New York.

At its mouth at Lake Ontario, the river divides the City of Oswego just as it divides the City of Fulton a few miles upstream.

“Canalized” for part of its length as the Oswego Canal, the Oswego River also serves as a part of the New York State Canal System, providing a route from the Erie Canal to Lake Ontario. This section of the canal was completed in 1827, two years after completion of the Erie Canal. In 1917, as part of a general overhaul of the canal system, the Oswego Canal was deepened and refurbished. The canal is now 14 feet (4.3 m) deep and has an overhead clearance of 20 feet (6.1 m).

The Oswego River was listed as a Great Lakes Areas of Concern in The Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement between the United States and Canada until it was formally delisted on July 21, 2006.

The river is known for its steelhead run in the early spring, followed by a salmon run in early autumn. The river is stocked annually by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation with 140,000 Chinook salmon and 20,000 steelhead.

 

 

 

 

Salmon River (New York)

 

View of the Salmon River in the Village of Pulaski, Oswego County, NY, just upstream of the "Black Hole" angler access point (author: Antepenultimate, 2009).
View of the Salmon River in the Village of Pulaski, Oswego County, NY, just upstream of the “Black Hole” angler access point (author: Antepenultimate, 2009).

The Salmon River is a large river in Upstate New York in the United States. The river is a popular and economically important sportfishing destination, and the most heavily fished of New York’s Lake Ontario tributaries. From its headwaters in the Tug Hill region of New York, it flows 44 miles (71 km) westward through two hydroelectric dams and over the 110-foot (34 m) Salmon River Falls before it empties into eastern Lake Ontario at Port Ontario in Oswego County. The Salmon River watershed drains approximately 280 square miles (730 km2).

The river is noted for its recreational salmon fishery, which is sustained by the efforts of the Salmon River Fish Hatchery, located north of Altmar on a tributary to the Salmon River. Hatchery staff raise over three million young trout and salmon each year to be stocked in streams and lakes throughout New York State, including the Salmon River itself.

The Salmon River derives its name from the landlocked Atlantic salmon which were of great importance to Native Americans and early settlers of the region. However, these native salmon were extirpated from the river by 1872 and from Lake Ontario by 1898. Since the late 1960s, the Salmon River has been stocked primarily with Chinook salmon, coho salmon, steelhead, and brown trout, in addition to a smaller proportion of Atlantic salmon. These fish return to the river for annual spawning runs after spending a majority of the year in Lake Ontario.

The river is also a popular location for kayaking and river rafting during parts of the year when water from the Lighthouse Hill Dam is released, with several companies making excursions to the river.

The Salmon River includes several distinct reaches and features between its headwaters and mouth. The headwaters of the Salmon River are located in western Lewis County, within New York’s Tug Hill region. The primary upper tributaries of the Salmon River are the North Branch Salmon River (itself fed by the Mad River) and East Branch Salmon River. The river’s upper reaches are heavily forested and sparsely populated, allowing for the water quality of the river to be extremely high.

 

 

View of the dam that impounds the upper Salmon River Reservoir in October of 2008 (author: Antepenultimate, 2008).
View of the dam that impounds the upper Salmon River Reservoir in October of 2008 (author: Antepenultimate, 2008).

 

The Salmon River Reservoir, also known as the Redfield Reservoir, is a 6.9-mile-long (11.1 km) man-made waterbody in Oswego County. The reservoir was created with the completion of a hydroelectric dam in 1912. It covers an area of 2,660 acres (10.8 km2) with a maximum depth of 50 feet (15 m) and has the capacity to hold 56,000 acre feet (69,000,000 m3) of water. It is the larger of the Salmon River’s two reservoirs.

The Salmon River is a large river in Upstate New York in the United States. The river is a popular and economically important sportfishing destination, and the most heavily fished of New York’s Lake Ontario tributaries. From its headwaters in the Tug Hill region of New York, it flows 44 miles (71 km) westward through two hydroelectric dams and over the 110-foot (34 m) Salmon River Falls before it empties into eastern Lake Ontario at Port Ontario in Oswego County. The Salmon River watershed drains approximately 280 square miles (730 km2).

The river is noted for its recreational salmon fishery, which is sustained by the efforts of the Salmon River Fish Hatchery, located north of Altmar on a tributary to the Salmon River. Hatchery staff raise over three million young trout and salmon each year to be stocked in streams and lakes throughout New York State, including the Salmon River itself.

The Salmon River derives its name from the landlocked Atlantic salmon which were of great importance to Native Americans and early settlers of the region. However, these native salmon were extirpated from the river by 1872 and from Lake Ontario by 1898. Since the late 1960s, the Salmon River has been stocked primarily with Chinook salmon, coho salmon, steelhead, and brown trout, in addition to a smaller proportion of Atlantic salmon. These fish return to the river for annual spawning runs after spending a majority of the year in Lake Ontario.

The river is also a popular location for kayaking and river rafting during parts of the year when water from the Lighthouse Hill Dam is released, with several companies making excursions to the river.

The Salmon River includes several distinct reaches and features between its headwaters and mouth. The headwaters of the Salmon River are located in western Lewis County, within New York’s Tug Hill region. The primary upper tributaries of the Salmon River are the North Branch Salmon River (itself fed by the Mad River) and East Branch Salmon River. The river’s upper reaches are heavily forested and sparsely populated, allowing for the water quality of the river to be extremely high.

 

View of the dam that impounds the upper Salmon River Reservoir in October of 2008 (author: Antepenultimate, 2008).
View of the dam that impounds the upper Salmon River Reservoir in October of 2008 (author: Antepenultimate, 2008).

 

 

Spring view of the Salmon River Falls from below (author: Antepenultimate, 2009).
Spring view of the Salmon River Falls from below (author: Antepenultimate, 2009).

 

The Salmon River Falls is a 110-foot (34 m) waterfall in Oswego County, located between the Salmon River’s two reservoirs. It is situated within the 112-acre (0.45 km2) Salmon River Falls Unique Area, managed by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation. The falls and surrounding land was owned by the Niagara Mohawk power company prior to 1993, when ownership was transferred to New York State. The area has since been improved with parking areas, wheelchair-accessible trails, and interpretive kiosks, and is a popular sightseeing destination in the region. Historically, the falls were the natural upstream limit for spawning salmon in the river prior to the construction of the Lighthouse Hill Dam.

In 1968, 22,000 coho salmon were stocked in the Salmon River, marking the beginning of the current era of salmon sportfishing on the river. Chinook salmon were stocked beginning in 1970. Initial returns were poor, and would remain so until successful sea lamprey control began in 1972. By 1974, large salmon runs were observed regularly in the Salmon River, and steelhead were initially stocked beginning in that year as well.

 

The Salmon River Fish Hatchery opened in 1980 (author: Marisa Lubeck, USGS, 2011).
The Salmon River Fish Hatchery opened in 1980 (author: Marisa Lubeck, USGS, 2011).

 

 

To support the growing Lake Ontario sportfishing industry, the Salmon River Fish Hatchery was built in 1980 on Beaverdam Brook, a tributary to the Salmon River near Altmar. The hatchery receives its Chinook, coho and steelhead broodstock directly from river-running fish that are allowed directly into the hatchery. The facility also raises brown trout and Atlantic salmon using eggs received from other facilities. In total, the hatchery raises nearly three million young fish for release into New York’s waters each year.

Fishing regulations and stocking levels have changed throughout the years in response to prey fish abundance, habitat conditions, and social pressure. Between 1976 and 1977, possession of salmon caught in Lake Ontario or its tributaries was banned due to elevated levels of chemical contaminants such as Mirex and PCBs. In 1995, the practice of snagging was banned due to ethical concerns and social problems on the river. 

 

 

 

 

Little Salmon River (Lake Ontario)

 

The Little Salmon River is a tributary of Lake Ontario located in Oswego County, New York. The river enters Lake Ontario approximately four miles (6.4 km) southwest from the mouth of the Salmon River.

The river was known by the Iroquois as Cas-son-ta-che-go-na, translated as “river of great bark” or “large pieces of bark lying down, ready for building”. In addition to its current name, the stream was historically known as Salmon Creek or Little Salmon Creek. The current name was officially adopted by the United States Board on Geographic Names in 1905.

The Little Salmon River drains an approximately 85-square-mile (220 km2) watershed, which is primarily agricultural and residential in nature.

The river rises at the confluence of the North Branch Little Salmon River and South Branch Little Salmon River in the eastern part of the town of Mexico, west of the village of Parish. From there, the river flows northwest through the village of Mexico and the hamlet of Texas before emptying into Lake Ontario at Mexico Point.

The lower Little Salmon River provides habitat for a variety of resident fish species, including brown bullhead, white suckers, rock bass, largemouth bass, and northern pike. In addition, several lake-dwelling species enter the Little Salmon River during annual spawning runs in the fall, including Chinook salmon, coho salmon, steelhead, and brown trout. In 2015, 3,410 six-inch-long (15 cm) steelhead were stocked in the river by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation.

The majority of the river is privately owned, and fishing access to the river is limited to Mexico Point State Park and the Mexico Point Boat Launch, both located near the mouth of the Little Salmon River.

 

 

 

 

Genesee River

 

Genesee River near Belmont (author: Pollinator, 2005).
Genesee River near Belmont (author: Pollinator, 2005).

 

The Genesee River is a tributary of Lake Ontario flowing northward through the Twin Tiers of Pennsylvania and New York in the United States.

The river provided the original power for the Rochester area’s 19th century mills and still provides hydroelectric power for downtown Rochester.

A March 1865 thaw was the worst Genesee flood in Rochester history, and a similar 1913 flood motivated the excavation of the Genesee’s rock bed in Downtown Rochester. The 1972 Hurricane Agnes flood broke all county historical records, with the most concentrated damage in the Wellsville area. The water from Hurricane Agnes caused the only instance where the river’s flow exceeded the storage capacity of the reservoir of the Mount Morris Dam, the largest flood control dam east of the Mississippi, and water had to be released from the dam to prevent overtopping of the spillway.

 

 

 

 

Humber River (Ontario)

After the old one was destroyed during Hurricane Hazel in 1954, a new footbridge was built in 1995 to span the Humber, between Lions and Raymore Park (author: Risker, 2009).
After the old one was destroyed during Hurricane Hazel in 1954, a new footbridge was built in 1995 to span the Humber, between Lions and Raymore Park (author: Risker, 2009).

 

The Humber River (French: Rivière Humber) is a river in SouthernOntario, Canada. It is in the Great Lakes Basin, is a tributary of Lake Ontario and is one of two major rivers on either side of the city of Toronto, the other being the Don River to the east. It was designated a Canadian Heritage River on September 24, 1999.

The Humber collects from about 750 creeks and tributaries in a fan-shaped area north of Toronto that encompasses portions of Dufferin County, the Regional Municipality of Peel, Simcoe County, and the Regional Municipality of York. The main branch runs for about 100 kilometres (60 mi) from the Niagara Escarpment in the northwest, while another other major branch, known as the East Humber River, starts at Lake St. George in the Oak Ridges Moraine near Aurora to the northeast. They join north of Toronto and then flow in a generally southeasterly direction into Lake Ontario at what was once the far western portions of the city. The river mouth is flanked by Sir Casimir Gzowski Park and Humber Bay Park East.

 

 

The Humber as it exits into Lake Ontario. The bridge carries a cycling path over the river, and is the same path as in the image above, some 20k to the north (author: Maury Markowitz, 2005).
The Humber as it exits into Lake Ontario. The bridge carries a cycling path over the river, and is the same path as in the image above, some 20k to the north (author: Maury Markowitz, 2005).

 

The Humber watershed is a hydrological feature of south-central Ontario, Canada, principally in north and west Toronto. It has an area of 903 square kilometres (349 sq mi), flowing through numerous physio-graphic regions, including the Oak Ridges Moraine and the Niagara Escarpment. The watershed is bounded on the west by the Credit River, Etobicoke Creek and Mimico Creek watersheds, and on the east by the Garrison Creek, Don River and Rouge River watersheds, all six of which empty into Lake Ontario; on the north by the Nottawasaga River which empties into Lake Huron; and on the northeast by the Holland River, which empties into Lake Simcoe.

Unlike the Don to the east, the Humber remained relatively free from industrialization as Toronto grew. Since the flooding of Hurricane Hazel, it has been largely developed or redeveloped as parkland, with the extensive and important wetlands on its southern end remaining unmolested. Whereas the mouth of the Don is often clogged with flotsam and is obstructed by low bridges, the Humber is navigable and used for recreation and fishing.

Today the majority of the Toronto portion of the Humber is parkland, with paved trails running from the lake shore all the way to the northern border of the city some 30 km away. Trails following the various branches of the river form some 50 km of bicycling trails, much of which are in decent condition. Similar trails on the Don tend to be narrower and in somewhat worse condition, but the complete set of trails is connected along the lake shore, for some 100 km of off-road paved trails.

 

 

 

 

 

Trent River (Ontario)

 

 

Trent River south of Batawa Dam and Locks (author: Richard apple, 2012).
Trent River south of Batawa Dam and Locks (author: Richard apple, 2012).

 

The Trent River is a river in southeastern Ontario which flows from Rice Lake to empty into the Bay of Quinte on Lake Ontario. This river is part of the Trent-Severn Waterway which leads to Georgian Bay. The river is 90 kilometres (56 mi) long. The Trent drains a large portion of south-central Ontario, including most of the Kawartha Lakes and their supplying watersheds.

The river is host to numerous species of birds, amphibians and fish. Some species of fish in the river are: Smallmouth bass, Largemouth bass, Pike, Walleye, Freshwater drums, Crappie as well as other smaller fish such as Sunfish, Rock Bass and Bluegill.

 

Scotts Mills (Lock 19) of the Trent–Severn Waterway in the City of Peterborough, Ontario, Canada (author: The Canadian Roadgeek, 2008).
Scotts Mills (Lock 19) of the Trent–Severn Waterway in the City of Peterborough, Ontario, Canada (author: The Canadian Roadgeek, 2008).

 

Tributaries of this river include the Crowe River and the Otonabee River, which runs through the city of Peterborough, Ontario. Trent University, located in Peterborough, is named after the region, and looked to provide university education to the area.

In 2008 water soldier plant was reported found along the shore line. The plant is imported from Europe. It is a common pond plant, purchased in garden stores. It has sharp leaves and is a possible concern as the plant spreads quickly using asexual reproduction.

 

 

 

Cataraqui River

 

The Cataraqui River (/ˌkætəˈrɒkw/ KAT-ə-ROK-way) forms the lower portion of the Rideau Canal and drains into Lake Ontario at Kingston, Ontario. The name is taken from the original name for Kingston, Ontario; its exact meaning, however, is undetermined. Early maps showed several name variations including the Great Cataraqui River and Grand River Cataraquay. The river was once called Riviere de Frontenac, or Frontenac River.

Prior to the Rideau Canal being built (1826–1832), the Cataraqui River had its headwaters in Dog and Loughborough lakes. It was a meandering creek, a 1795 map (by surveyor Lewis Grant) noted “a great number of rapids and Carrying Places on this creek.” This changed with the building of the Rideau Canal. The Superintending Engineer of the project, Lt. Colonel John By, used a slackwater construction technique, building dams to drown rapids. In the area of the Cataraqui Creek from Upper Brewers to Kingston Mills he had the forests cut down to form a straight channel (this work is visible in the Burrowes paintings of Brewer’s Lower Mill shown below). Then the area was flooded in late 1831/early 1832 with the completion of canal dams at Kingston Mills, Lower Brewers and Upper Brewers.

 

 

 

Black River (New York)

 

 

The Black River's Great Falls, Watertown, New York (author: Rja141, 2004).
The Black River’s Great Falls, Watertown, New York (author: Rja141, 2004).

 

The Black River is a 125-mile-long (201 km) blackwater river that empties into the eastern end of Lake Ontario on the shore of Jefferson County, New York in the United States. The origin of the name is not clear, but it may stem from the natural tannic acid that darkens the water in places. The river flows in a generally northwest direction, with its valley dividing the Adirondack Mountains on the east from the Tug Hill region to the west.

 

 

A small tributary cascade waterfall on the Black River, just south of New York Rte 3 near a canoe launch point on the Black River Trail (author: Ahodges7, 2015).
A small tributary cascade waterfall on the Black River, just south of New York Rte 3 near a canoe launch point on the Black River Trail, in the Village of Black River (author: Ahodges7, 2015).

 

The Black River originates at North Lake in the foothills of the Adirondacks, in Herkimer County, about 25 miles (40 km) east of Boonville. The river flows west into Oneida County then north, past Forestport and Boonville into Lewis County. At Lyons Falls, it is joined by the Moose River from the east just above the eponymous waterfall, where the river drops 70 feet (21 m) over a gneiss cliff.

Near Glenfield the Black River receives the smaller tributaries of Otter Creek and the Independence River, also from the east. Further north, it passes Lowville, then receives the Beaver River from the east, then the Deer River, its only major western tributary. Starting above Carthage the river briefly divides Lewis and Jefferson Counties before crossing entirely into Jefferson County, where it turns sharply west toward Lake Ontario, flowing past Great Bend, Black River and Watertown. Below Watertown it enters a canyon, well known for its challenging rapids.

 The river ends at Lake Ontario in the village of Dexter, about 10 miles (16 km) west of Watertown, where it empties into the Black River Bay and Marsh, which are parts of the Golden Crescent. For the last few miles it forms the boundary between the Towns of Brownville and Hounsfield.

There are at least 17 dams on the Black River, with eight in the upper part above Lyons Falls, and nine below Watertown. The upper and lower reaches of the river have a steep gradient and were originally developed to provide mechanical power for mills, such as the old Georgia-Pacific paper mill (which now sits abandoned and falling into disrepair) in Lyons Falls, and later hydroelectricity. In contrast the middle 40 miles (64 km) of the river have practically no gradient and are not suitable to the development of head for industrial or hydropower projects.

The three uppermost dams, forming North Lake, Kayuta Lake and the smaller Forestport Reservoir are the only structures forming significant impoundments. The other dams are run-of-the-river, with no appreciable storage capacity, so power generation is entirely dependent on the natural flow of the river combined with releases from upstream reservoirs, which is relatively consistent except for drought years.

The river is an excellent location for fishing. Abundant trout, salmon, bass, and pike are present in the stream, and salmon is the most favored.

Whitewater rafting and kayaking are popular on some stretches of the river, notably the Black River Canyon, which begins in Watertown and ends in Brownville. The Black River Canyon is one of few whitewater streams which have reliable flows throughout the summer. The “Canyon” itself is not actually present until you reach Brownville and ends in the Dexter Reservoir.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Geology

 

 

Lake Ontario bathymetric shaded relief map contoured with interval 20 m (100 m with thicker lines). The deepest point is marked with "X" (source: National Geophysical Data, PD-US Center, 1999).
Lake Ontario bathymetric shaded relief map contoured with interval 20 m (100 m with thicker lines). The deepest point is marked with “X” (source: National Geophysical Data, PD-US Center, 1999).

 

The lake basin was carved out of soft, weak Silurian-age rocks by the Wisconsin ice sheet during the last ice age. The action of the ice occurred along the pre-glacial Ontarian River valley which had approximately the same orientation as today’s basin. Material that was pushed southward by the ice sheet left landforms such as drumlins, kames, and moraines, both on the modern land surface and the lake bottom,reorganizing the region’s entire drainage system. As the ice sheet retreated toward the north, it still dammed the St. Lawrence valley outlet, so that the lake surface was at a higher level. This stage is known as Lake Iroquois. During that time the lake drained through present-day Syracuse, New York into the Mohawk River, thence to the Hudson River and the Atlantic. The shoreline created during this stage can be easily recognized by the (now dry) beaches and wave-cut hills 10 to 25 miles (15 to 40 km) from the present shoreline.

When the ice finally receded from the St. Lawrence valley, the outlet was below sea level, and for a short time the lake became a bay of the Atlantic Ocean, in association with the Champlain Sea. Gradually the land rebounded from the release of the weight of about 6,500 feet (2,000 m) of ice that had been stacked on it. It is still rebounding about 12 inches (30 cm) per century in the St. Lawrence area. Since the ice receded from the area last, the most rapid rebound still occurs there. This means that the lake bed is gradually tilting southward, inundating the south shore and turning river valleys into bays. Both north and south shores experience shoreline erosion, but the tilting amplifies this effect on the south shore, causing loss to property owners.

 

 

 

 

History

 

 

Buffalo New York, Panoramic View of Iroquois-CREDIT: "Iroquois Indians." c1914. William Alexander Drennan, copyright claimant, 1914 (author: Chris 73).
Buffalo New York, Panoramic View of Iroquois-CREDIT: “Iroquois Indians.” c1914. William Alexander Drennan, copyright claimant, 1914 (author: Chris 73).

 

Ontario, or ‘beautiful great lake’ derives its name from the Iroquois / Haudenosaunee first nation which inhabited the area around the lake until about 1700. The lake was a border between the Huron and their vassals and the Iroquois Confederacy in pre-European times. In the 1600s, the Iroquois drove out the Huron from southern Ontario and settled the northern shores of Lake Ontario. When the Iroquois withdrew and the Anishnabeg / Ojibwa / Mississaugas moved in from the north to southern Ontario, they retained the Iroquois name.

The first documented European to reach the lake was Étienne Brûlé in 1615. As was their practice, the French explorers introduced other names for the lake. In 1632 and 1656, the lake was referred to as Lac de St. Louis or Lake St. Louis by Samuel de Champlain and cartographer Nicolas Sanson respectively (likely for Louis XIV of France) In 1660 Jesuit historian Francis Creuxius coined the name Lacus Ontarius. In a map drawn in the Relation des Jésuites (1662–1663), the lake bears the legend “Lac Ontario ou des Iroquois” with the name “Ondiara” in smaller type. A French map produced in 1712 (currently in the Canadian Museum of Civilization), created by military engineer Jean-Baptiste de Couagne, identified Lake Ontario as “Lac Frontenac” named after Louis de Buade, Comte de Frontenac et de Palluau. He was a French soldier, courtier, and Governor General of New France from 1672 to 1682 and from 1689 to his death in 1698.

Artifacts which are believed to be of Norse origin have been found in the area of Sodus Bay, indicating possible earlier visits by Europeans, but this remains unproven.

 

Fort Ontario is an historic fort situated by the city of Oswego, New York (author: Ad Meskens, 2009).
Fort Ontario is an historic fort situated by the city of Oswego, New York (author: Ad Meskens, 2009).

 

A series of trading posts was established by both the British and French, such as Fort Frontenac (Kingston) in 1673, Fort Oswego in 1722, Fort Rouillé (Toronto) in 1750. After the French and Indian War, all forts around the lake were under British control. The United States did not take possession of forts on present-day American territory until the signing of the Jay Treaty in 1794.

 

The Fort Rouillé monument at Exhibition Place, Toronto (author: GTD Aquitaine, 2008).
The Fort Rouillé monument at Exhibition Place, Toronto (author: GTD Aquitaine, 2008).

 

Permanent, non-military European settlement began during the American Revolution. As the easternmost and nearest lake to the Atlantic seaboard of Canada and the United States, population centres here are among the oldest in the Great Lakes basin, with Kingston, Ontario, formerly the capital of Canada, dating to the 1670s (Fort Frontenac). The lake became a hub of commercial activity following the War of 1812 with canal building on both sides of the border and heavy travel by lake steamers. Steamer activity peaked in the mid-19th century before competition from railway lines.

 

 

Remnants of the old fort with the new Fort Frontenac in background (author: P199, 2010).
Remnants of the old fort with the new Fort Frontenac in background (author: P199, 2010).

 

In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, a type of scow known as a stonehooker was in operation on the north-west shore, particularly around Port Credit and Bronte. Stonehooking was the practice of raking flat fragments of Dundas shale from the shallow lake floor of the area for use in construction, particularly in the growing city of Toronto.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ecology and environmental concerns

 

 Wetland profile for Great Lakes (author: Douglas A. Wilcox, Todd A. Thompson, Robert K. Booth, and J.R. Nicholas, 2012).

Wetland profile for Great Lakes (author: Douglas A. Wilcox, Todd A. Thompson, Robert K. Booth, and J.R. Nicholas, 2012).

 

The Great Lakes watershed is a region of high biodiversity, and Lake Ontario is important for its diversity of birds, fish, reptiles amphibians and plants. Many of these special species are associated with shorelines, particularly sand dunes, lagoons, and wetlands. The importance of wetlands to the lake has been appreciated, and many of the larger wetlands have protected status. However, these wetlands are changing in part because the natural water level fluctuations have been reduced. Many wetland plants are dependent upon low water levels to reproduce. When water levels are stabilized, the area and diversity of the marsh is reduced. This is particularly true of meadow marsh (also known as wet meadow wetlands); for example, in Eel Bay near Alexandria Bay, regulation of lake levels has resulted in large losses of wet meadow. Often this is accompanied by the invasion of cattails, which displace many of the native plant species and reduce plant diversity. Eutrophication may accelerate this process by providing nitrogen and phosphorus for the more rapid growth of competitively dominant plants. Similar effects are occurring on the north shore, in wetlands such as Presqu’ile, which have interdunal wetlands called pannes, with high plant diversity and many unusual plant species.

 

Scarborough Bluffs (author: Benson Kua, 2009).
Scarborough Bluffs (author: Benson Kua, 2009).

 

Most of the forests around the lake are deciduous forests dominated by trees including maple, oak, beech, ash and basswood. These are classified as part of the Mixedwood Plains Ecozone by Environment Canada, or as the Eastern Great Lakes and Hudson Lowlands by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, or as the Great Lakes Ecoregion by The Nature Conservancy. Deforestation in the vicinity of the lake has had many negative impacts, including loss of forest birds, extinction of native salmon, and increased amounts of sediment flowing into the lake. In some areas more than 90 percent of the forest cover has been removed and replaced by agriculture. Certain tree species, such as hemlock, have also been particularly depleted by past logging activity. Guidelines for restoration stress the importance of maintaining and restoring forest cover, particularly along streams and wetlands.

The open water is less-affected by shoreline features, such as wetlands, and more affected by nutrient levels that control the production of algae. Algae are the basis of the open water food web, and the source of primary production that ends up as Lake Trout and Walleye at the top of the open water food web.

 

 

 

Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were abundant in 1860 and had been driven to near extinction by 1960 (user: Neil916, GLERL, PD-US, 2007).
Lake Sturgeon (Acipenser fulvescens) were abundant in 1860 and had been driven to near extinction by 1960 (user: Neil916, GLERL, PD-US, 2007).

 

 

Like the other Great Lakes, Lake Ontario used to have an important commercial fishery. It has been largely destroyed, mostly by over-fishing. Consider the Lake Sturgeon as but one example. Lake sturgeon are huge fish—they can grow up to three meters long and exceed 190 kg in weight. The females mature slowly and require decades to reach sexual maturity. It was once an abundant species in Lake Ontario. “In 1860, this species, taken on incidental catches of other fishes, was killed and dumped back in the lake, piled up on shore to dry and be burned, fed to pigs, or dug into the earth as fertilizer.” It was even stacked like cordwood and used to fuel steamboats. Once its value was realized, “They were taken by every available means from spearing and jigging to set lines of baited or unbaited hooks laid on the bottom to trapnets, poundnets and gillnets.” Over 5 million pounds were taken from adjoining Lake Erie in a single year. The fishery collapsed, largely by 1900. They have never recovered. Like most sturgeons, the lake sturgeon is rare now, and is protected in many areas. Populations in the Oswego River are being actively managed for recovery.

Salmon-seeking anglers on the lower Salmon River near Port Ontario in October of 2007, fishing both from shore and from drift boats (author: Bill Blevins, 2007).
Salmon-seeking anglers on the lower Salmon River near Port Ontario in October of 2007, fishing both from shore and from drift boats (author: Bill Blevins, 2007).

 

This food web has been damaged not only by over-fishing, and changes in nutrient levels, but also by other types of polluted from industrial chemicals, agricultural fertilizers, untreated sewage, phosphates, such as from laundry detergents, and chemicals. Some pollutant chemicals that have been found in the lake include DDT, benzo[a]pyrene and other pesticides; PCBs, aramite, chromium, lead, mirex, mercury, and carbon tetrachloride. The International Joint Commission has identified areas where pollution is particularly intense (point sources) and mapped them as Areas of Concern. A Remedial Action Plan has been developed for each area. Some Lake Ontario areas of concern include the Oswego River and Rochester Embayment on the American side, and Hamilton Harbour and Toronto on the Canadian Side.

By the 1960s and 1970s, the increased pollution caused frequent algal blooms to occur in the summer. These blooms killed large numbers of fish, and left decomposing piles of filamentous algae and dead fish along the shores. At times the blooms became so thick that waves could not break. Fish eating birds such as osprey, bald eagle and cormorant were being poisoned by contaminated fish. Since the 1960s and 1970s, environmental concerns have forced a cleanup of industrial and municipal wastes. Cleanup has been accomplished through better treatment plants, tighter environmental regulations, deindustrialization and increased public awareness. Today, Lake Ontario has recovered some of its pristine quality; for example, walleye, a fish species considered as a marker of clean water, are now found. However, regional airshed pollution remains a concern. The lake has also become an important sport fishery, although with introduced species (Coho and Chinook salmon) rather than the native species. Bald eagle and osprey populations are also beginning to recover.

Invasive species are a problem for Lake Ontario, particularly lamprey and zebra mussels. Lamprey are being controlled by poisoning in the juvenile stage in the streams where they breed. Zebra mussels in particular are difficult to control, and pose major challenges for the lake and its waterways.

 

 

 

 

 

Climate

 

Bathers at Southwick Beach State Park, eastern shore of Lake Ontario, New York State (author: Easchiff, 2008).
Bathers at Southwick Beach State Park, eastern shore of Lake Ontario, New York State (author: Easchiff, 2008).

 

The lake has a natural seiche rhythm of eleven minutes. The seiche effect normally is only about 34 inches (2 cm) but can be greatly amplified by earth movement, winds, and atmospheric pressure changes.

Because of its great depth, the lake as a whole never freezes in winter, but an ice sheet covering between 10% and 90% of the lake area typically develops, depending on the severity of the winter. Ice sheets typically form along the shoreline and in slack water bays, where the lake is not as deep. During the winters of 1877 and 1878, the ice sheet coverage was up to 95–100% in most of the lake. In the winter of 1812, the ice cover was stable enough that the American naval commander stationed at Sackets Harbor feared a British attack from Kingston, over the ice.

When the cold winds of winter pass over the warmer water of the lake, they pick up moisture and drop it as lake-effect snow. Since the prevailing winter winds are from the northwest, the southern and southeastern shoreline of the lake is referred to as the snowbelt. In some winters the area between Oswego and Pulaski may receive twenty or more feet (600 cm) of snowfall. Also impacted by lake-effect snow is the Tug Hill Plateau, an area of elevated land that is about 20 miles (32 km) east of Lake Ontario, creating ideal conditions for lake-effect snowfall. The “Hill”, as it is often referred to, typically receives more snow than any other region in the eastern United States. As a result, Tug Hill is a popular location for winter enthusiasts, such as snow-mobilers and cross-country skiers. Lake-effect snow often extends inland as far as Syracuse, with that city often recording the most winter snowfall accumulation of any large city in the United States. Other cities in the world receive more snow annually, such as Quebec City, which averages 135 inches (340 cm), and Sapporo, Japan, which receives 250 inches (640 cm) each year and is often regarded as the snowiest city in the world. Foggy conditions (particularly in fall) can be created by thermal contrasts and can be an impediment for recreational boaters. In a normal winter, Lake Ontario will be at most one quarter ice-covered, in a mild winter almost completely unfrozen. Lake Ontario has completely frozen over on five recorded occasions: from about January 20 to about March 20, 1830; in 1874; in 1893; in 1912; and in February 1934.

 

 

Boats in winter, Lake Ontario, Canada (photo: miyeon on absfreepic.com).
Boats in winter, Lake Ontario, Canada (photo: miyeon on absfreepic.com).

 

Lake breezes in spring tend to retard fruit bloom until the frost danger is past, and in the autumn delay the onset of fall frost, particularly on the south shore. Cool onshore winds also retard early bloom of plants and flowers until later in the spring season, protecting them from possible frost damage. Such microclimatic effects have enabled tender fruit production in a continental climate, with the southwest shore supporting a major fruit-growing area. Apples, cherries, pears, plums, and peaches are grown in many commercial orchards around Rochester. Between Stoney Creek and Niagara-on-the-Lake on the Niagara Peninsula is a major fruit-growing and wine-making area. The wine-growing region extends over the international border into Niagara and Orleans counties. Apple varieties that tolerate a more extreme climate are grown on the lake’s north shore, around Cobourg.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Settlements

 

Winter scene on Toronto Bay in 1835
Winter scene on Toronto Bay, looking from Taylor’s Wharf looking east towards Gooderham & Worts’ windmill (author: William Armstrong (1822–1914), source: Toronto Public Library).

 

A large conurbation called the Golden Horseshoe occupies the lake’s westernmost shores, anchored by the cities of Toronto and Hamilton. Ports on the Canadian side include St. Catharines, Oshawa, Cobourg and Kingston, near the St. Lawrence River outlet. Close to 9 million people or over a quarter of Canada’s population lives within the watershed of Lake Ontario. The American shore is largely rural, with the exception of Rochester and the much smaller ports at Oswego and Sackets Harbor. The city of Syracuse is 40 miles (64 km) inland, connected to the lake by the New York State Canal System. Over 2 million people live in Lake Ontario’s American watershed.

 

Marina in Port Dalhousie, Ontario
Marina and Sidewalk, as seen from Rear Range Lighthouse Port Dalhousie/St. Catharines, Ontario (author: Achim Hering, 2007).

 

A high-speed passenger/vehicle ferry, the Spirit of Ontario I, operated between Toronto and Rochester from June 17, 2004, to January 10, 2006, when the service was cancelled. The Crystal Lynn II, out of Irondequoit, New York, has been operating between Irondequoit Bay and Henderson, New York since May 2000, operated by Capt. Bob Tein.

 

 

Spirit of Ontario I arriving at the port of Rochester (author: RTucker, 2004).
Spirit of Ontario I arriving at the port of Rochester (author: RTucker, 2004).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Ocean and Lake Waterway


Great Lakes Waterway System

 

Aerial picture of the Soo Locks in Michigan between Lake Superior and Lake Huron (author: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, PD-US, 1992).
Aerial picture of the Soo Locks in Michigan between Lake Superior and Lake Huron (author: U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, PD-US, 1992).

 

The Great Lakes Waterway is a system of natural channels and canals which enable navigation between the North American Great Lakes. Though all of the lakes are naturally connected as a chain, water travel between the lakes was impeded for centuries by obstacles such as Niagara Falls and the rapids of the St. Marys River.

Its principal civil engineering works are the Welland Canal between Lakes Ontario and Erie, and the huge Soo Locks between Huron and Superior. Dredged channels were constructed in the St. Marys River, the Detroit River, Lake St. Clair and the St. Clair River between Huron and Erie. Usually, one or more U.S. Coast Guard icebreakers help keep the water passage open for part of the fall and early winter, although shipping usually ceases for two to three months thereafter. The Great Lakes Waterway is co-administered by the governments of Canada and the United States of America.

 

Map of the North American Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway (author: USN, PD-US, 1959).
Map of the North American Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway (author: USN, PD-US, 1959).

 

The waterway allows passage from the Atlantic Ocean to the inland port of Duluth on Lake Superior, a distance of 2,340 miles (3,770 km) and to Chicago, on Lake Michigan, at 2,250 miles (3,620 km)

Together with the Saint Lawrence Seaway, the Waterway allows both ocean-going vessels and the ore and coal-bearing lake freighters to travel from the system’s saltwater outlet to its far interior. The Waterway has larger locks and deeper drafts than the lower Seaway, limiting large freighters to the four lakes upstream of the Welland Canal and Lake Ontario, and similarly restricting passage beyond the canal by larger ocean vessels. The two waterways are often jointly and simply referred to as the “St. Lawrence Seaway”, since the Great Lakes, together with the St. Lawrence River, comprise a single navigable body of freshwater linking the Atlantic Ocean to the continental interior.

 

Vessels upbound on the lower St. Marys River pass through the Munuskong Channel towards Lakes Nicolet and Superior — while downbound vessels travel towards Lake Huron through the West Neebish Channel (author: Kdorse, 2013).
Vessels upbound on the lower St. Marys River pass through the Munuskong Channel towards Lakes Nicolet and Superior — while downbound vessels travel towards Lake Huron through the West Neebish Channel (author: Kdorse, 2013).

 

Shipping channels separate upbound traffic from downbound traffic. The upbound direction is away from the St. Lawrence River (westerly or northerly except in Lake Michigan where upbound is southerly). Channels are marked with navigation buoys in constricted areas and pilots are required on foreign boats. Recreational boats can use or cross the ship channels, but the large boats, with limited maneuverability, have right of way.

The Great Lakes Waterway connects the lake sidestream to the Atlantic Ocean via the St. Lawrence Seaway, and upstream to the other rivers in the chain via the Welland Canal and to Lake Erie. The Trent-Severn Waterway for pleasure boats connects Lake Ontario at the Bay of Quinte to Georgian Bay (Lake Huron), via Lake Simcoe. The Oswego Canal connects the lake at Oswego to the New York State Canal System, with outlets to the Hudson River, Lake Erie, and Lake Champlain.

The Rideau Canal, also for pleasure boats, connects Lake Ontario at Kingston to the Ottawa River in downtown Ottawa.

 

 

 

 

 

 


Islands on Lake Ontario


 

Nearly all of Lake Ontario’s islands are located on the eastern and north-eastern shores, between the Prince Edward County headland and the lake’s outlet at Kingston. The Toronto Islands on the north-western shore are the remnants of a sand spit formed by coastal erosion, whereas the mostly larger eastern islands are underlain by the basement rock found throughout the region. Wolfe Island, located near Kingston at the St. Lawrence outlet, is the largest island in the basin. It is accessible by ferry from both Canada and the U.S.

  • Toronto Islands
  • Association Island
  • Galloo Island
  •   Little Galloo Island
  • Calf Island
  • Stony Island
  • Amherst Island
  • Simcoe Island
  • Garden Island
  • Grenadier Island
  • Waupoos Island
  • Nicholson Island
  • Big Island

 

 

 

 

Toronto Islands

 

 

The Toronto Islands from the CN Tower (author: Richie Diesterheft, 2012).
The Toronto Islands from the CN Tower (author: Richie Diesterheft, 2012).

 

The Toronto Islands (formerly known as Island of Hiawatha and also known as Menecing, meaning “On the Island” in the Ojibwa language) are a chain of small islands in Lake Ontario, south of mainland Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Comprising the only group of islands in the western part of Lake Ontario, the Toronto Islands are located just offshore from the city centre, and provide shelter for Toronto Harbour. The islands are home to parkland, the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, several yacht clubs, Centreville Amusement Park, and Hanlan’s Beach. The island community is considered to be the largest urban car-free community in North America, although some service vehicles are permitted. Access to the Islands is by ferry, including the City of Toronto ferries operating from Jack Layton Ferry Terminal at the foot of Bay Street, or by water taxis.

 

View of Toronto from Toronto Islands (author: Marcin Wichary, 2008).
View of Toronto from Toronto Islands (author: Marcin Wichary, 2008).

 

The island is a popular recreation destination. Recreational bicyclists are accommodated on the ferries. There is a public bicycle sharing station operated by Bike Share Toronto at Jack Layton Ferry Terminal and bicycles and quadracycles can be rented at Centre Island. Canoes, kayaks and paddle boats can also be rented on the island. A frisbee golf course exists on the island. The main beach is along the south shore and the beach on the west shore is clothing-optional. There is ample park land suitable for picnicking which is popular, several playgrounds, and several gardens.

 

Map of the Toronto Islands (author: OpenStreetMap / Padraic, 2008).
Map of the Toronto Islands (author: OpenStreetMap / Padraic, 2008).

 

 

 

 

Wolfe Island (Ontario)

 

Wolfe Islander III at the ferry docks in Kingston harbour (author: Flibirigit, 2008).
Vehicles loading onto the Wolfe Islander III at the ferry docks in Kingston harbour (author: Flibirigit, 2008).

 

Wolfe Island is an island at the entrance to the Saint Lawrence River in Lake Ontario near Kingston, Ontario. Wolfe Island is part of Frontenac County, Ontario and the Township of Frontenac Islands. It is the largest of the Thousand Islands. The largest community on the island is Marysville. The island was part of the traditional hunting lands of the Tyendinaga Mohawk people and the original name of the island is Ganounkouesnot (‘Long Island Standing up’). It was called Grand Ile by the French, but was later named after British General James Wolfe by British settlers.

The island is about 29 kilometres (18 miles) long, with its width varying from around 9 kilometres (6 miles) to a few hundred metres at some points; its area is about 124 square kilometres (48 square miles). The resident population is about 1400 people, but this can double or triple in summer. Wolfe Island has its own post office (K0H 2Y0) and telephone exchange (+1-613-385-).

Wolfe Island can be accessed by ferry from both Canada and the United States. The ferry from Kingston (Wolfe Islander III) is operated by the Ministry of Transportation and is free of charge. This ferry operates from two locations: the Summer Dock located in Marysville and the Winter Dock located at Dawson Point. This route includes a bubbler system that stretches to the Barrack Street Dock in Kingston, Ontario. This ferry service is currently being examined in an ongoing transportation study. The seasonal Horne’s Ferry (May to October) toll ferry to Cape Vincent, New York, first licensed in 1802, is still operated by the descendants of the first licence-holder and is one of the rare Canada-US international border crossings to be privately operated (the others are the Windsor-Detroit’s Ambassador Bridge and Sombra–Marine City (Bluewater) Ferry).

A third ferry runs seasonally to join Wolfe Island to Simcoe Island.

Snowy owls are frequently seen on the island during winter. It is also an important stopover location for migrating waterfowl including swans in spring and fall. Wolfe Island is also home to a growing population of wild turkeys, and well as deer and other fauna. It is designated an Important Bird Area.

The Big Sandy Bay Management Area on Wolfe Island is a 404-hectare property, classified as a provincially significant life sciences Area of Natural and Scientific Interest. Sand dunes and wetlands allow rare plant species to flourish here. Rare trees and birds deemed to be significant either regionally or provincially are also found here. The environmental area is protected and no motorized vehicles are allowed, though there is ample free parking provided at the entrance. A well-marked and level walking trail leads to a large, secluded sand beach with shallows reaching out well into Lake Ontario. The beach is safe and family-friendly, but there are no services, so visitors are encouraged to bring their own refreshments and must carry out all garbage and recyclables to dispose of at home.

 

There is one golf course on Wolfe Island, a corn maze and three marked bicycle routes and country roads. The town of Marysville includes a bakery, restaurants and various other shops and services, as well as the largest church in the Thousand Islands (Sacred Heart of Mary Church). A new medical clinic opened in the spring of 2010. There is a volunteer fire and ambulance service on the island. Additionally, Wolfe Island has Big Sandy Bay Management Area. During the summer months in Marysville the Old House Museum is in operation. There are two elementary schools on the island: Marysville Public School that is part of the Limestone District School Board  and Sacred Heart Catholic School that is part of the Algonquin and Lakeshore Catholic District School Board.

In Marysville, the Township operates a tourist information centre seasonally.

The limestone Wolfe Island Town Hall is a National Historic Site of Canada.

 

 

 

 

Galloo Island

 

The Galloo Island Light is listed on the National Register of Historic Places (author: US Coast Guard, PD-US).
The Galloo Island Light is listed on the National Register of Historic Places (author: US Coast Guard, PD-US).

 

Galloo Island is located in eastern Lake Ontario near the entrance to Sackets Harbor in Jefferson County, New York, within the jurisdiction of the Town of Hounsfield.

Galloo Island is approximately 6 miles (9.7 km) from the New York mainland, and 5 miles (8.0 km) southeast of the international boundary with Canada. It is the most westerly of a group of four islands which includes Little Galloo Island, Calf Island, and Stony Island.

Galloo Island’s shoreline is low and marshy, except on the northwest side where the island’s forests abut Lake Ontario. The island has 10 miles (16 km) of shoreline, 3 miles (4.8 km) of which are cliffs of up to 65 feet (20 m) tall.

Wildlife on the island includes whitetail deer, fox, beaver, raccoon, pheasant, wild turkey, Canada goose, and various species of duck.

 

 

 

 

Amherst Island

 

Amherst Island ferry, the Frontenac II (author: Mike Gifford, 2010).
Amherst Island ferry, the Frontenac II (author: Mike Gifford, 2010).

 

Amherst Island is located in Lake Ontario, 10 kilometres (6 mi) west of Kingston, Ontario, Canada. Contrary to popular perception, Amherst Island is not one of the Thousand Islands. The island is part of Loyalist Township in Lennox and Addington County. Amherst Island is located about 3 kilometres (2 mi) offshore from the rest of Loyalist Township and is serviced by an automobile and truck ferry from Millhaven. The island measures over 20 kilometres (12 mi) in length from Bluff Point in the southwest to Amherst Bar in the northeast and over 7 kilometres (4.3 mi) at its widest point across. The island is about 70 square kilometres (27 sq mi) in size and is one of the largest islands in the Great Lakes.

The Amherst Island archipelago also includes: Nut Island, Grape Island and the Brother Islands. These small islands cover over 6,695 hectares (16,543 acres) or about 66 square kilometres (25 sq mi). Nut Island is the largest of the islands that immediately surround Amherst Island and is about 610 metres (2,000 ft) off the Amherst Island coast between Amherst Bay and Long Point Bay. Grape Island is located about 300 metres (1,000 ft) off the Amherst Island coast, and can be easily seen from shore. The Brother Islands are situated between Amherst Island and the Lemoine Point Conservation Area in Kingston, Ontario.

 

 

 

 

Simcoe Island

 

Cable Ferry from Wolfe Island to Simcoe Island in Ontario, Canada (author: Z22, 2013).
Cable Ferry from Wolfe Island to Simcoe Island in Ontario, Canada (author: Z22, 2013).

 

Simcoe Island is a small island approx. 3½ km long, and one km across at its’ widest point, in Lake Ontario, just off Wolfe Island, close to Kingston, Ontario, and Amherst Island.

The island is almost completely farmland and can be reached by ferry from Wolfe Island. Part of Frontenac County, it forms the township of Frontenac Islands, Ontario with Wolfe Island and Howe Island, together with smaller, privately owned islands, Garden Island and Horseshoe Island.

In 1792, scant months after the partition of Quebec into the provinces of Upper Canada and Lower Canada, Lieutenant-Governor John Graves Simcoe named the archipelago at the head of the St. Lawrence river for the victorious Generals at the Battle of the Plains of Abraham: James Wolfe, Jefferey Amherst, William Howe, Guy Carleton and Thomas Gage. The last is now known as Simcoe Island.

Although the island was originally named Isle de Foret (“Forest Island”) by early French settlers, most of the trees on the island have been removed for farming, with the exception of small isolated forests and trees. The name Gage Island was also used for a period of time. The name Simcoe was given to the island in honour of John Graves Simcoe.

The two main points of interest on the island are the cable ferry, one of the smallest in Ontario (holding a maximum of three cars), and the Nine Mile Point Lighthouse, accessible by the island’s only main dirt road, Nine Mile Point Road. The lighthouse was built in 1833 and is an “Imperial” style light 40 feet high. Originally, this light was manually operated, but it is now fully automated. It is now a federal heritage building, and the graveyard of many ships sunk off the point, including the Comet, a paddle steamer from the United States, the Aloha, a 171-foot-long vessel, and the Effie Mae, which collided with the Aloha.

 

 

 

 

Big Island (Bay of Quinte)

 

Big Island is an island in Prince Edward County, Ontario, Canada. Approximately 5.8 miles in length and with a maximal width of 2 miles, it is located in the Bay of Quinte in Lake Ontario, between Belleville and Demorestville. It is accessed by a fixed causeway of 0.4 miles in length which connects Big Island to the remainder of Prince Edward County. The island is within the Township of Sophiasburgh and is the largest of all off-shore islands in Prince Edward County.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Lighthouses on Lake Ontario


 

 

  • Beach Canal Lighthouse
  • Braddock Point Light
  • Charlotte-Genesee Lighthouse
  • Gibraltar Point Lighthouse
  • Oswego Harbor West Pierhead Light
  • Presqu’ile Lighthouse
  • Selkirk Lighthouse
  • Sodus Point Light
  • Stony Point Light
  • Thirty Mile Point Light

 

 

 

Charlotte–Genesee Lighthouse

 

 

The Charlotte-Genesee Lighthouse in Charlotte, the northernmost neighborhood of Rochester, New York. Built in 1822, the light tower is 40 feet tall (author: Matthew D. Wilson (LtPowers), 2009).
The Charlotte-Genesee Lighthouse in Charlotte, the northernmost neighborhood of Rochester, New York. Built in 1822, the light tower is 40 feet tall (author: Matthew D. Wilson (LtPowers), 2009).

 

 

The Charlotte–Genesee Lighthouse is an 1822 stone octagonal lighthouse in the Charlotte neighborhood in northern Rochester, New York, United States. The 40 ft tower is located on Lake Ontario at the mouth of the Genesee River. It originally had 10 whale oil Argand lamps, which were replaced with a Fresnel lens in 1853.

On February 28, 1881, the lighthouse was turned off. After nearby piers changed the mouth of the river, it was far from the water. The light was then moved to a pier in 1884.

In 1965, Charlotte High School students started a letter writing campaign to save the lighthouse from impending destruction. It was declared surplus in 1981 by the government. It is now owned by Monroe County and managed as a museum by the Charlotte Genesee Lightouse Historical Society, a nonprofit volunteer organization.

It is part of the Seaway Trail, a National Scenic Byway. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and is also a City of Rochester Landmark. It is open to the public.

 

 

 

 

Braddock Point Light

 

 

Old Braddock Point Lighthouse on Bogus Point on Lake Ontario in New York (source: US Coast Guard, PD-US).
Old Braddock Point Lighthouse on Bogus Point on Lake Ontario in New York (source: US Coast Guard, PD-US).

 

Braddock Point Light was a lighthouse just west of Braddock Bay at Bogus Point on Lake Ontario in New York.

The lighthouse was established and lit in 1896 and was deactivated in 1954. The lighthouse was constructed out of red brick, with an octagonal tower. The lantern portion of the tower was removed from an 1870s lighthouse in Cleveland, Ohio and moved to Braddock in 1895. The original lens, installed in 1896, was a third-and-half-order Fresnel lens. The upper two-thirds of the tower was removed by the Coast Guard in 1954 due to structural damage.

The Coast Guard reactivated the light on February 28, 1999. The lighthouse is now privately owned and has opened as a bed and breakfast. The lighthouse was put up for sale in November 2014 by owners Donald and Nandy Town.

 

 

 

Gibraltar Point Lighthouse

 

 

Gibraltar Point Lighthouse on the Toronto Islands in Toronto, Canada. Oldest lighthouse on the Great Lakes and second-oldest lighthouse in Canada (author: Padraic Ryan, 2009).
Gibraltar Point Lighthouse on the Toronto Islands in Toronto, Canada. Oldest lighthouse on the Great Lakes and second-oldest lighthouse in Canada (author: Padraic Ryan, 2009).

 

The Gibraltar Point Lighthouse is a lighthouse located on the Toronto Islands in Toronto, Ontario. Begun in 1808, it is the oldest existing lighthouse on the Great Lakes, and one of Toronto’s oldest buildings. The lighthouse is perhaps best known for the demise of its first keeper, German-born John Paul Radelmüller, whose 1815 murder forms the basis of Toronto’s most enduring ghost story. Recent research has verified many aspects of the traditional tale of his death and identified the soldiers charged with but ultimately acquitted of the crime.

Authorized in 1803 with two other lighthouses by an Act of the Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada, construction of the Gibraltar Point lighthouse did not begin until 1808. It was built to a height of 52 feet (16 m) and extended to 82 feet (25 m) in 1832. The diameter ranges from about 7 metres (23 ft) at the base to about 2.1 metres (6.9 ft) at the top. The base is made from stone quarried in Queenston and the extension from Kingston stone. The lighthouse construction and maintenance was paid for through a harbour fee levied upon all boats entering the harbour. When completed in August 1809, the lighthouse was located 25 feet (7.6 m) from the shore. Since then, sand has built up over time so that it now stands about 100 metres (110 yd) inland.

When opened, the lighthouse was accompanied by the lighthouse keeper’s cottage. It was a squared-log house clad in clapboard. It was two-storeys, having two rooms on the first floor and sleeping space in the attic above. When ships approached, the lighthouse keeper would run up a flag to notify the Toronto harbour master. The cottage no longer exists.

The tower light was initially an oak and glass cage, illuminated by candles. The tower switched to sperm oil from 1832 and switched to coal in 1863. The original lamp structure was wood and replaced with steel in 1878. An electric light was installed in 1916-17 and updated in 1945. In 1958, Metro Parks took over operations and made renovations in 1961-62. Currently unused, the lighthouse is occasionally open for public tours, including on the annual Doors Open Toronto weekend.

Since the decommissioning of the lighthouse, smaller automated lighthouses (two located at Humber Bay Park in the west and Bluffer’s Park to the east), Toronto Harbour Light, as well as floating bell or light buoys, navigational masts have been used to replace the lighthouse to provide navigational aid along Toronto’s waterfront and Toronto Harbour.

A local legend is that the lighthouse is haunted by its first keeper John Paul Radelmüller (often rendered incorrectly as Rademiller, Radenmuller, Radan Muller etc.), who was murdered in 1815.

According to local lore, soldiers from Fort York visited J.P. Radelmüller on the evening of January 2, 1815, in search of his bootlegged beer. But they had too much to drink, and dispute broke out, culminating in the keeper’s murder. The inebriated soldiers, so it is claimed, tried to conceal their crime by chopping apart the corpse and hiding the remains. In 1893, then-keeper George Durnan searched for the corpse, and found part of a jawbone and coffin fragments near the lighthouse, though it was impossible to prove definitively prove they were linked to Radelmüller. The veracity of the legend of the murder has long been questioned. As prominent Toronto historian Mike Filey wrote, when it came to the truth of the story of the keeper’s demise, “Your guess is as good as mine.”

Recent scholarship has revealed more about Radelmüller’s life and death. Born circa 1763 in Anspach, Germany, Radelmüller worked as a servant of royalty for twenty years, in the households of the Duke of Gloucester and the Duke of Kent, accompanying the latter to Halifax, Nova Scotia in 1799. Arriving at York in 1804, Radelmüller was appointed as keeper of the Gibraltar Point Lighthouse on July 14, 1809.

Radelmüller indeed suffered a violent death on January 2, 1815, aged approximately fifty-two, according to the most recent and definitive study of his murder, which confirmed the basic truth of many aspects of the popular legend. Eamonn O’Keeffe also identified the two soldiers charged with (but acquitted of) Radelmüller’s murder as John Henry and John Blueman, both Irishmen of the Glengarry Light Infantry, a regiment that saw heavy action in the War of 1812.

While research has verified much of the traditional tale, O’Keeffe cast doubt on some of the more dramatic elements of the story. Contrary to claims that the keeper’s corpse was hacked to pieces and hidden, contemporary evidence suggests that Radelmüller’s body was not mutilated, but was found after his death and laid to rest near the lighthouse.

 

 

 

 

Oswego Harbor West Pierhead Light

 

Oswego Harbor West Pierhead Lighthouse is an active aid to navigation located off the coast of Oswego, New York. It was built in 1934 to replace an earlier light constructed in 1880. It stands at the end of a 2,000-foot-long (610 m) breakwater at mouth of Oswego River, extending .5 miles (.8 km) out onto Lake Ontario. It is accessible by boat or from land over the abutting breakwater. It is not open to the public. It is owned by the City of Oswego and operated by the United States Coast Guard. It is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

 

Oswego Lighthouse circa 1900, the original one before the current facility (user: Durova, PD-US, 2008).
Oswego Lighthouse circa 1900, the original one before the current facility (user: Durova, PD-US, 2008).

 

The original lighthouse on the location was constructed in 1889 when the second breakwater for the harbor was built. This light stood until 1934 when the present lighthouse was constructed. In 1936 an attached one story keeper’s quarters was added.

The original fourth order Fresnel lens was removed to the H. Lee White Maritime Museum in Oswego in 1995. In December 2000 the lighthouse was added to the National Register of Historic Places.

It is the only lighthouse of four in Oswego still standing. The light is currently solar powered.

The tower is situated on a massive concrete/masonry caisson that extends 17 feet (5.18 meters) above the mean surface of the lake. The caisson has three feet (0.91 meter) thick walls. The superstructure has bolted steel plate and iron walls, roof, doors, window shutters. It has a one-story hipped roof living quarters with a three-story tower at the north east corner of the caisson.

The caisson contains a large basement and is penetrated by double steel doors at the south where a tender may be landed to transfer personnel or supplies and a steel door at the west, leading to the breakwater. Recessed ladders are found at both elevations for access to the doorways and deck above.

The first floor level encloses the living quarters. The interior includes living room, bedroom, kitchen, hallway and bathroom areas. Finishes include plaster walls, vinyl-asbestos floor tiles and varnished wood trim throughout. A steel plate chimney rises through the roof at the southwest corner of the light. The fourth level has a lantern/watch deck and is surmounted by a conical roof with ball finial.

On June 1, 2006, the light station was declared surplus, and the application for transfer under the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act of 2000 is complete and it has been recommended for transfer to the City of Oswego.

 

Oswego Harbor West Pierhead Lighthouse (user: Durin, PD-US, 2006).
Oswego Harbor West Pierhead Lighthouse (user: Durin, PD-US, 2006).

On May 18, 2009, The General Services Administration conveyed the Oswego West Pierhead Light in New York to the city of Oswego. Acting Regional Administrator Glenn Rotondo signed the deed under the National Historic Lighthouse Preservation Act. Mayor Randolph Bateman received the deed on the city’s behalf. The conveyance, which includes the light and keeper’s quarters, will become part of the city’s waterfront access program. It will remain a working navigational aid maintained by the U.S. Coast Guard.

 

 

 

 

Presqu’ile Provincial Park

 

Presqui'le Lighthouse, Ontario, Canada (author: Plismo, 2009).
Presqui’le Lighthouse, Ontario, Canada (author: Plismo, 2009).

Presqu’ile Provincial Park is a park in southeastern Northumberland County on the north shore of Lake Ontario near the town of Brighton in Ontario, Canada. The park occupies an area of 9.37 km2 (3.62 sq mi). The name of the park is the French word for peninsula, or literally “almost island”, and was believed to be named by Samuel De Champlain on his second expedition. The park area was formed when a limestone island was connected to the mainland by a sand spit; this kind of formation is referred to as a tombolo.

The park area had been selected in 1797 as the site of a town called Newcastle which was to become the county seat. However, on October 8, 1804, the schooner HMS Speedy, which was bringing officials to a trial at the new courthouse, sank offshore with all on board lost. The ship was never found, nor the bodies of the passengers and crew. The county seat was moved to nearby Amherst (now Cobourg, Ontario). In 1840, a lighthouse was completed at Presqu’ile Point. The designer of the 69-foot, octagonal structure was Nicol Hugh Baird. Baird also designed the Murray Canal, parts of the Trent-Severn Waterway and the Rideau Canal. Today, this lighthouse stands as the second oldest operating lighthouse on the north shore of Lake Ontario.

In 1922, a private commission was given authority to develop a park at Presqu’ile. In the 20th century, Presqu’ile became popular for recreation, with two kilometres of sandy beaches, a summer hotel and dance pavilion, an annual regatta race, a nine-hole golf course and opportunities for boating. As the decades passed, the type of recreation enjoyed at the park changed which caused the dismantling of the golf course and the closure of the hotel and dance pavilion. Presqu’ile was incorporated into the Ontario Parks system in 1954 and has become a popular destination for campers, naturalists, and other users.

Presqu’ile has 397 campsites, day use area, beach, store and two visitor centres. The park is aimed at family recreation, and offers a Natural Heritage Education program. The park often holds special events such as the Waterfowl Weekend in March, History Weekend in August, Parks Day, and Canada Day celebrations. Recreational activities popular at Presqu’ile include cycling, swimming, paddling, fishing, hiking, wildlife viewing, and hunting.

 

 

 

 

Selkirk Light

 

Selkirk Lighthouse, Salmon River, Lake Ontario (author: Unknown, PD-US).
Selkirk Lighthouse, Salmon River, Lake Ontario (author: Unknown, PD-US).

 

Selkirk Lighthouse is located at mouth of the Salmon River in New York. It is one of only four lighthouses in the United States that retains its original bird-cage lantern. Land for the Port Ontario Lighthouse Reservation was purchased from Sylvester and Daniel Brown by the Federal Government on September 1, 1837. Jacob Gould, Superintendent of Lighthouses on Lake Ontario, publicized for bids about a week after the purchase. The specifications included dimensions of the lumber and weight of the copper sheets, as well as the materials and dimensions of the house and an outhouse. There were eight lamps in the tower which originally burned whale oil.

The bid was awarded to Joseph Gibbs and Abner French, local contractors. Most of the stonework was accomplished by Jabez Meacham, using stone from a nearby quarry. The wrought iron railings that encircled the birdcage lantern room were formed by John Box, a local blacksmith. The total cost was about $3,000.00.

Commerce was booming at the time the lighthouse was constructed. Two piers were built at the mouth of the Salmon River to improve the harbor. A canal was proposed to connect the Salmon River to Lake Oneida and the Erie Canal. Unfortunately, the canal was never built, and Selkirk faded in importance. With an official beacon no longer justified, the lighthouse was deactivated in 1858.

On October 16, 1895, Leopold Joh, a German émigré, purchased the lighthouse at auction from the US Government for $155. The lighthouse was first used as Joh’s private residence before it was incorporated into a hotel complex that Joh started to develop in 1899. While on an errand procuring refreshments for his guests, Joh died of a massive coronary on August 21, 1907. His family continued to operate the hotel until it was sold to the Heckle family in 1916.

The Heckles eventually doubled the size of the hotel and the property attracted vacationers from as far away as New York City and Philadelphia. The hotel and nearby marina was purchased by the Walker Family in 1987 and then again by the Barnell Family in 2014. Multiple upgrades to the entire property have been made, including complete renovations of the Lighthouse and all 3 cottages, a new boat launch ramp and new state-of-the-art floating docks.

The future of the hotel, which has been boarded up since an explosion in 1987, is still undetermined, but many former guests and even more brand new ones are discovering and experiencing the comfort and beauty of the vastly improved accommodations and amenities which have been implemented since the 2014 Barnell Family purchase.

In 1989, a Coast Guard-approved solar light was installed in the lantern room. On August 6 of that year, the Selkirk Lighthouse was reactivated as a Class II navigation aid.

 

 

 

Sodus Point Light

 

Sodus Bay Lighthouse, Sodus Point, New York (author: Doug Kerr, 2010).
Sodus Bay Lighthouse, Sodus Point, New York (author: Doug Kerr, 2010).

 

Sodus Point Light is a lighthouse that was built on Sodus Point on Lake Ontario, New York. The lighthouse has been replaced by a modern skeleton tower. The lighthouse tower is a square, pyramidal cast iron tower on a concrete and stone pier. It is white with red trim. There is a 212 story limestone keepers quarters that was built in 1871, which is currently used as a museum. The lighthouse is owned by the Town of Sodus Point, New York. There is a long term lease with the Sodus Bay Historical Society to manage the lighthouse. The lighthouse is on the National Register of Historic Places, with reference #76001288, as Sodus Point Lighthouse. The pier and shore light served simultaneously from 1834 until 1901. The dwelling was used by the Coast Guard as housing until 1984. There is a 312 order Fresnel lens on display.

 

 

 

Stony Point (Henderson) Light

 

The Stony Point Light is the oldest lighthouse on the Hudson River. It is located at the Stony Point Battlefield in Stony Point, New York.

The lighthouse was built in 1826 by Thomas Phillips, to warn ships away from the rocks of the Stony Point peninsula. The completion of the Erie Canal the previous year, which linked New York City to America’s heartland, increased traffic on the Hudson River dramatically, and the need for navigational aids was paramount.

Its design is an octagonal pyramid, made entirely of stone. In service for nearly 100 years, the lighthouse had a series of keepers, most notably the Rose family. The Rose home is also on the Historic Register.

The lighthouse at Stony Point, New York is the oldest on the Hudson River, built in 1826 (author: Ser Amantio di Nicolao, 2014).
The lighthouse at Stony Point, New York is the oldest on the Hudson River, built in 1826 (author: Ser Amantio di Nicolao, 2014).

 

The lighthouse was decommissioned in 1925 and was acquired by the parks commission in 1941. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places on May 29, 1979

Through the efforts of the Stony Point Battlefield State Historic Site, the Palisades Park Interstate Commission, and NYS Office of Parks, Recreation, and Historic Preservation, restoration of the lighthouse began in 1986. The exterior was repaired and painted and the lantern was reglazed. On October 7, 1995, restoration was complete, and the light was activated for the first time in 70 years. The automatic light, operated by solar power, beams a flash of light once every four seconds. It is open to the public.

Stony Point (Henderson) Light is listed as one of New York’s Historic Light Stations.

 

 

 

Thirty Mile Point Light

 

Thirty Mile Point, Lake Ontario, near Barker, New York (user: Ahwiv, 2009).
Thirty Mile Point, Lake Ontario, near Barker, New York (user: Ahwiv, 2009).

 

Thirty Mile Point Light is a lighthouse on the south shore of Lake Ontario in Niagara County, New York. It is part of Golden Hill State Park, a New York state park.The lighthouse is open to the public. It gets its name because it is the point 30 miles east of the Niagara River. The lighthouse was built in 1875 of hand-carved stone. The old tower is being restored.

The lighthouse is listed in the Historic American Buildings Survey as NY-6154. There are three photos available in the survey.

Thirty Mile Point Light was one of five lighthouses chosen for the “Lighthouses of the Great Lakes” postage stamp series designed by Howard Koslow in 1995. There was one lighthouse chosen on each of the Great Lakes. The four other lighthouses were Split Rock Light on Lake Superior, St Joseph Light on Lake Michigan, Spectacle Reef Light on Lake Huron, and Marblehead Light on Lake Erie.

 

 

 

 

Industrialisation

 

Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway - Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Photo taken from Burlington, Ontario, showing Lake Ontario and bridge (author: Magnolia677, 2008).
Burlington Bay James N. Allan Skyway – Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Photo taken from Burlington, Ontario, showing Lake Ontario and bridge (author: Magnolia677, 2008).

 

The government of Ontario, which holds the lakebed rights of the Canadian portion of the lake under the Beds of Navigable Waters Act, currently does not permit off-shore wind power to be generated offshore. In Trillium Power Wind Corporation v. Ontario (Natural Resources), the Superior Court of Justice held that Trillium Power—since 2004 an “Applicant of Record” who had invested $35,000 in fees and, when in 2011 the Crown made a policy decision against offshore windfarms, claimed an injury of $2.25 billion—disclosed no reasonable cause of action.

Trillium Power Wind 1 (“TPW1”) is a proposed 450 to 500 megawatt (MW) far-offshore wind farm in Canadian waters of northeastern Lake Ontario at least 17 km to 28 km from the nearest mainland. This well-supported renewable energy project is being developed by Trillium Power Wind Corporation, a privately Canadian-owned company headquartered in Toronto. TPW1 is positioned to be among the first offshore wind farms built in The Great Lakes.

On May 19, 2011 Trillium Power Wind Corporation gave notice to the McGuinty Government that if its targeted action against Trillium Power was not corrected it would initiate an action suing the Government of

 

 

 

 

Lake Ontario

Location : North America
Group : Great Lakes
Coordinates : 43.7°N 77.9°W Coordinates: 43.7°N 77.9°W
Lake type : Glacial
Primary inflows : Niagara River
Primary outflows : St. Lawrence River
Catchment area : 24,720 sq mi (64,000 km2)
Basin countries : United States
Canada
 
Max. length : 193 mi (311 km)
Max. width : 53 mi (85 km)
Surface area : 7,340 sq mi (19,000 km2)
Average depth : 283 ft (86 m)
Max. depth : 802 ft (244 m)
Water volume : 393 cu mi (1,640 km3)
Residence time : 6 years
Shore length1 : 634 mi (1,020 km) plus 78 mi (126 km) for islands
Surface elevation : 243 ft (74 m)
 
Settlements

:

Toronto, Ontario
Hamilton, Ontario
Rochester, New York

 

 


Source :

https://en.wikipedia.org

http://www.absfreepic.com


 

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