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Death Valley National Park, Utah

View of the Zabriskie Point on Death Valley National Park (photo: marabu on absfreepic.com).
The Furnace Creek Inn and Ranch Resort is a privately owned luxury resort in California's Death Valley National Park (author: inazakira, 2010).
The Furnace Creek Inn and Ranch Resort is a privately owned luxury resort in California’s Death Valley National Park (author: inazakira, 2010).

 

 

Death Valley National Park is a national park in the United States. Straddling the border of California and Nevada, located east of the Sierra Nevada, it occupies an interface zone between the arid Great Basin and Mojave deserts in the United States. The park protects the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and contains a diverse desert environment of salt-flats, sand dunes, badlands, valleys, canyons, and mountains. It is the largest national park in the lower 48 states and has been declared an International Biosphere Reserve. Approximately 95% of the park is a designated wilderness area. It is the hottest and driest of the national parks in the United States. The second-lowest point in the Western Hemisphere is in Badwater Basin, which is 282 feet (86 m) below sea level. The park is home to many species of plants and animals that have adapted to this harsh desert environment. Some examples include creosote bush, bighorn sheep, coyote, and the Death Valley pupfish, a survivor of much wetter times.

A series of Native American groups inhabited the area from as early as 7000 BC, most recently the Timbisha around 1000 AD who migrated between winter camps in the valleys and summer grounds in the mountains. A group of European-Americans that became stuck in the valley in 1849 while looking for a shortcut to the gold fields of California gave the valley its name, even though only one of their group died there. Several short-lived boom towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to mine gold and silver. The only long-term profitable ore to be mined was borax, which was transported out of the valley with twenty-mule teams. The valley later became the subject of books, radio programs, television series, and movies. Tourism blossomed in the 1920s, when resorts were built around Stovepipe Wells and Furnace Creek. Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and the park was substantially expanded and became a national park in 1994.

The natural environment of the area has been shaped largely by its geology. The valley itself is actually a graben. The oldest rocks are extensively metamorphosed and at least 1.7 billion years old. Ancient, warm, shallow seas deposited marine sediments until rifting opened the Pacific Ocean. Additional sedimentation occurred until a subduction zone formed off the coast. This uplifted the region out of the sea and created a line of volcanoes. Later the crust started to pull apart, creating the current Basin and Range landform. Valleys filled with sediment and, during the wet times of glacial periods, with lakes, such as Lake Manly.

In 2013, Death Valley National Park was designated as a dark sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association.

 

 

A segment of the highway on Death Valley National Park (photo: marabu on absfreepics.com).
A segment of the highway on Death Valley National Park (photo: marabu on absfreepics.com).

 

 

Satellite's earth view of the Death Valley National Park (Google Maps).
Satellite’s earth view of the Death Valley National Park (Google Maps).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Geographic setting

 

 

Panamint Valley, looking south from the "South Pass" that connects Panamint and Saline valleys (author: G. Thomas, 1985).
Panamint Valley, looking south from the “South Pass” that connects Panamint and Saline valleys (author: G. Thomas, 1985).

 

 

Death Valley photomap (author: Hargitai, 2016).
Death Valley photomap (author: Hargitai, 2016).

 

 

There are two major valleys in the park, Death Valley and Panamint Valley. Both of these valleys were formed within the last few million years and both are bounded by north–south-trending mountain ranges. These and adjacent valleys follow the general trend of Basin and Range topography with one modification: there are parallel strike-slip faults that perpendicularly bound the central extent of Death Valley. The result of this shearing action is additional extension in the central part of Death Valley which causes a slight widening and more subsidence there.

Uplift of surrounding mountain ranges and subsidence of the valley floor are both occurring. The uplift on the Black Mountains is so fast that the alluvial fans (fan-shaped deposits at the mouth of canyons) there are small and steep compared to the huge alluvial fans coming off the Panamint Range. Fast uplift of a mountain range in an arid environment often does not allow its canyons enough time to cut a classic V-shape all the way down to the stream bed. Instead, a V-shape ends at a slot canyon halfway down, forming a ‘wine glass canyon.’ Sediment is deposited on a small and steep alluvial fan.

At 279 feet (85 m) below sea level, Badwater Basin on Death Valley’s floor is the second-lowest depression in the Western Hemisphere (behind Laguna del Carbón in Argentina), while Mount Whitney, only 85 miles (137 km) to the west, rises to 14,505 feet (4,421 m). This topographic relief is the greatest elevation gradient in the contiguous United States and is the terminus point of the Great Basin’s southwestern drainage. Although the extreme lack of water in the Great Basin makes this distinction of little current practical use, it does mean that in wetter times the lake that once filled Death Valley (Lake Manly) was the last stop for water flowing in the region, meaning the water there was saturated in dissolved materials. Thus the salt pans in Death Valley are among the largest in the world and are rich in minerals, such as borax and various salts and hydrates. The largest salt pan in the park extends 40 miles (64 km) from the Ashford Mill Site to the Salt Creek Hills, covering some 200 square miles (520 km2) of the valley floor. The best known playa in the park is the Racetrack, known for its moving rocks.

 

 

Map of the Death Valley National Park showing surrounding area and the previous smaller extent of the Park (author: Daniel Mayer).
Map of the Death Valley National Park showing surrounding area and the previous smaller extent of the Park (author: Daniel Mayer).

 

 

 

 

The Grandstand is visible on the horizon a little to the right of the center of the image. Note the track through the dried mud behind the boulder.
The Grandstand is visible on the horizon a little to the right of the center of the image. Note the track through the dried mud behind the boulder. These tracks are left when winter storms dampen the surface of the playa, which consists of extremely fine grained clay that becomes very slippery when wet, and also produce wind speeds high enough to break the rock loose and push it along. The rocks originate in the mountains surrounding the racetrack, and there are several hundred scattered around the playa. The average size of the rocks that leave these tracks is 50kg (author: Lgcharlot. 2006).

 

 

 

Sea Level sign seen on cliff (circled in red) at Badwater Basin, Death Valley National Park (author: Qfl247, 2010).
Sea Level sign seen on cliff (circled in red) at Badwater Basin, Death Valley National Park (author: Qfl247, 2010).

 

 

 

 Badwater Basin with the Panamint Range in the distance, Death Valley, California (author: Scottthezombie).
Badwater Basin with the Panamint Range in the distance, Death Valley, California (author: Scottthezombie).

 

 

 

Desert and abandoned radiator water tank near Grapevine (author: Roger469, 2016).
Desert and abandoned radiator water tank near Grapevine (author: Roger469, 2016).

 

 

 

 

 

Climate

 

A slice through the highest and lowest points in Death Valley National Park (author: Surachit, 2007).
A slice through the highest and lowest points in Death Valley National Park (author: Surachit, 2007).

 

 

Death Valley is the hottest and driest place in North America because of its lack of surface water and its low relief. It is so frequently the hottest spot in the United States that many tabulations of the highest daily temperatures in the country omit Death Valley as a matter of course.

On the afternoon of July 10, 1913, the United States Weather Bureau recorded a high temperature of 134 °F (56.7 °C) at Greenland Ranch (now Furnace Creek) in Death Valley. This temperature stands as the highest ambient air temperature ever recorded at the surface of the Earth. (A report of a temperature of 58 °C (136.4 °F) recorded in Libya in 1922 was later determined to be inaccurate.) Daily summer temperatures of 120 °F (49 °C) or greater are common, as well as below freezing nightly temperatures in the winter. July is the hottest month, with an average high of 115 °F (46 °C) and an average low of 88 °F (31 °C). December is the coldest month, with an average high of 65 °F (18 °C) and an average low of 39 °F (4 °C). The record low is 15 °F (−9.4 °C).

Several of the larger Death Valley springs derive their water from a regional aquifer, which extends as far east as southern Nevada and Utah. Much of the water in this aquifer has been there for many thousands of years, since the Pleistocene ice ages, when the climate was cooler and wetter. Today’s drier climate does not provide enough precipitation to recharge the aquifer at the rate at which water is being withdrawn.

 

 

 

 

 

Devil’s Golf Course

 

Devil's Golf Course in Death Valley National Park (author: Brocken Inaglory, 2008).
Devil’s Golf Course in Death Valley National Park (author: Brocken Inaglory, 2008).

The highest range within the park is the Panamint Range with Telescope Peak being its highest point at 11,049 feet (3,368 m). The Death Valley region is a transitional zone in the northernmost part of the Mojave Desert and consists of five mountain ranges removed from the Pacific Ocean. Three of these are significant barriers: the Sierra Nevada, the Argus Range, and the Panamint Range. Air masses tend to lose moisture as they are forced up over mountain ranges, in what climatologists call a rainshadow effect.

The exaggerated rainshadow effect for the Death Valley area makes it North America’s driest spot, receiving about 1.5 inches (38 mm) of rainfall annually at Badwater (some years fail to register any measurable rainfall). Annual average precipitation varies from 1.92 inches (49 mm) overall below sea level to over 15 inches (380 mm) in the higher mountains that surround the valley. When rain does arrive it often does so in intense storms that cause flash floods which remodel the landscape and sometimes create very shallow ephemeral lakes.

 

Tourist area around Badwater Basin, 282 feet below sea level, flooded by ephemeral Lake Badwater, Death Valley National Park, California. Panamint Range and Telescope Peak in the background (author: Qfl247, 2010).
Tourist area around Badwater Basin, 282 feet below sea level, flooded by ephemeral Lake Badwater, Death Valley National Park, California. Panamint Range and Telescope Peak in the background (author: Qfl247, 2010).

 

 

The hot, dry climate makes it difficult for soil to form. Mass wasting, the down-slope movement of loose rock, is therefore the dominant erosive force in mountainous area, resulting in “skeletonized” ranges (mountains with very little soil on them). Sand dunes in the park, while famous, are not nearly as widespread as their fame or the dryness of the area may suggest. The Mesquite Flat dune field is the most easily accessible from the paved road just east of Stovepipe Wells in the north-central part of the valley and is primarily made of quartz sand. Another dune field is just 10 miles (16 km) to the north but is instead mostly composed of travertine sand. The highest dunes in the park, and some of the highest in North America, are located in the Eureka Valley about 50 miles (80 km) to the north of Stovepipe Wells, while the Panamint Valley dunes and the Saline Valley dunes are located west and northwest of the town, respectively. The Ibex dune field is near the seldom-visited Ibex Hill in the southernmost part of the park, just south of the Saratoga Springs marshland. All of the latter four dune fields are accessible only via unpaved roads. Prevailing winds in the winter come from the north, and prevailing winds in the summer come from the south. Thus the overall position of the dune fields remains more or less fixed.

There are rare exceptions to the dry nature of the area. In 2005, an unusually wet winter created a ‘lake’ in the Badwater Basin and led to the greatest wildflower season in the park’s history. In October 2015, a “1000 year flood event” with over three inches of rain caused major damage in Death Valley National Park.

 

 

 

Human history

 

 

Petroglyphs above Mesquite Springs (author: Daniel Mayer, 2003).
Petroglyphs above Mesquite Springs (author: Daniel Mayer, 2003).

 

 

 

 
 

Early inhabitants and transient populations

 

 

Four Native American cultures are known to have lived in the area during the last 10,000 years. The first known group, the Nevares Spring People, were hunters and gatherers who arrived in the area perhaps 9,000 years ago (7000 BC) when there were still small lakes in Death Valley and neighboring Panamint Valley. A much milder climate persisted at that time, and large game animals were still plentiful. By 5,000 years ago (3000 BC) the Mesquite Flat People displaced the Nevares Spring People. Around 2,000 years ago the Saratoga Spring People moved into the area, which by then was probably already a hot, dry desert. This culture was more advanced at hunting and gathering and was skillful at handcrafts. They also left mysterious stone patterns in the valley.

One-thousand years ago, the nomadic Timbisha (formerly called Shoshone and also known as Panamint or Koso) moved into the area and hunted game and gathered mesquite beans along with pinyon pine nuts. Because of the wide altitude differential between the valley bottom and the mountain ridges, especially on the west, the Timbisha practiced a vertical migration pattern. Their winter camps were located near water sources in the valley bottoms. As the spring and summer progressed and the weather warmed, grasses and other plant food sources ripened at progressively higher altitudes. November found them at the very top of the mountain ridges where they harvested pine nuts before moving back to the valley bottom for winter.

The California Gold Rush brought the first people of European descent known to visit the immediate area. In December 1849 two groups of California Gold Country-bound white travelers with perhaps 100 wagons total stumbled into Death Valley after getting lost on what they thought was a shortcut off the Old Spanish Trail. Called the Bennett-Arcane Party, they were unable to find a pass out of the valley for weeks; they were able to find fresh water at various springs in the area, but were forced to eat several of their oxen to survive. They used the wood of their wagons to cook the meat and make jerky. The place where they did this is today referred to as “Burned Wagons Camp” and is located near the sand dunes.

After abandoning their wagons, they eventually were able to hike out of the valley. Just after leaving the valley, one of the women in the group turned and said, “Goodbye Death Valley,” giving the valley they endured its name. Included in the party was William Lewis Manly whose autobiographical book Death Valley in ’49 detailed this trek and popularized the area (geologists later named the prehistoric lake that once filled the valley after him).

 

A twenty-mule team in Death Valley (source: NPS).
A twenty-mule team in Death Valley (source: NPS).

 

 

Historical locomotive for borax-carrying in Death Valley (Furnace-Creek-Museum), USA (author: R-E-AL, 1993).
Historical locomotive for borax-carrying in Death Valley (Furnace-Creek-Museum), USA (author: R-E-AL, 1993).

 

 

The discovery of gold at Skidoo in the early 1900's sparked Death Valley's third mining period (source: US National Park Service).
The discovery of gold at Skidoo in the early 1900’s sparked Death Valley’s third mining period (source: US National Park Service).

 

 

 
 
Scotty's Castle in Death Valley National Park under construction (source: National Park Service).
Scotty’s Castle in Death Valley National Park under construction (source: National Park Service).

 

Civilian Conservation Corps workers in Death Valley (source: Death Valley National Park).
Civilian Conservation Corps workers in Death Valley (source: Death Valley National Park).

 

 

 
Vista of Twenty Mule Team Canyon, Death Valley, California (author: RoadTripWarrior, 2012).
Vista of Twenty Mule Team Canyon, Death Valley, California (author: RoadTripWarrior, 2012).

 

 

 

Boom and bust

 

The ores that are most famously associated with the area were also the easiest to collect and the most profitable: evaporite deposits such as salts, borate, and talc. Borax was found by Rosie and Aaron Winters near Furnace Creek Ranch (then called Greenland) in 1881. Later that same year, the Eagle Borax WorkSatellite

Close-up view of rock cluster of The Death Valley National Park (Google Maps).
Close-up view of rock cluster of The Death Valley National Park (Google Maps).

 

 

became Death Valley’s first commercial borax operation. William Tell Coleman built the Harmony Borax Works plant and began to process ore in late 1883 or early 1884, continuing until 1888. This mining and smelting company produced borax to make soap and for industrial uses. The end product was shipped out of the valley 165 miles (266 km) to the Mojave railhead in 10-ton-capacity wagons pulled by “twenty-mule teams” that were actually teams of 18 mules and two horses each.

The teams averaged two miles (3 km) an hour and required about 30 days to complete a round trip. The trade name 20-Mule Team Borax was established by Francis Marion Smith’s Pacific Coast Borax Company after Smith acquired Coleman’s borax holdings in 1890. A memorable advertising campaign used the wagon’s image to promote the Boraxo brand of granular hand soap and the Death Valley Days radio and television programs. In 1914, the Death Valley Railroad was built to serve mining operations on the east side of the valley. Mining continued after the collapse of Coleman’s empire, and by the late 1920s the area was the world’s number one source of borax. Some four to six million years old, the Furnace Creek Formation is the primary source of borate minerals gathered from Death Valley’s playas.

Other visitors stayed to prospect for and mine deposits of copper, gold, lead, and silver. These sporadic mining ventures were hampered by their remote location and the harsh desert environment. In December 1903, two men from Ballarat were prospecting for silver. One was an out-of-work Irish miner named Jack Keane and the other was a one-eyed Basque butcher named Domingo Etcharren. Quite by accident, Keane discovered an immense ledge of free-milling gold by the duo’s work site and named the claim the Keane Wonder Mine. This started a minor and short-lived gold rush into the area. The Keane Wonder Mine, along with mines at Rhyolite, Skidoo and Harrisburg, were the only ones to extract enough metal ore to make them worthwhile. Outright shams such as Leadfield also occurred, but most ventures quickly ended after a short series of prospecting mines failed to yield evidence of significant ore (these mines now dot the entire area and are a significant hazard to anyone who enters them). The boom towns which sprang up around these mines flourished during the 1900s (decade) but soon declined after the Panic of 1907.

 

 

 

 

Early tourism

 

The first documented tourist facilities in Death Valley were a set of tent houses built in the 1920s where Stovepipe Wells is now located. People flocked to resorts built around natural springs thought to have curative and restorative properties. In 1927, Pacific Coast Borax turned the crew quarters of its Furnace Creek Ranch into a resort, creating the Furnace Creek Inn and resort. The spring at Furnace Creek was harnessed to develop the resort, and as the water was diverted, the surrounding marshes and wetlands started to shrink.

Soon the valley was a popular winter destination. Other facilities started off as private getaways but were later opened to the public. Most notable among these was Death Valley Ranch, better known as Scotty’s Castle. This large ranch home built in the Spanish Revival style became a hotel in the late 1930s and, largely because of the fame of Death Valley Scotty, a tourist attraction. Death Valley Scotty, whose real name was Walter Scott, was a gold miner who pretended to be owner of “his castle”, which he claimed to have built with profits from his gold mine. Neither claim was true, but the real owner, Chicago millionaire Albert Mussey Johnson, encouraged the myth. When asked by reporters what his connection was to Walter Scott’s castle, Johnson replied that he was Mr. Scott’s banker.

 

 

 

Protection and later history

President Herbert Hoover proclaimed a national monument in and around Death Valley on February 11, 1933, setting aside almost two million acres (8,000 km2) of southeastern California and small parts of southwesternmost Nevada. Twelve companies worked in Death Valley using Civilian Conservation Corps workers during the Great Depression and on into the early 1940s. They built barracks, graded 500 miles (800 km) of roads, installed water and telephone lines, and erected a total of 76 buildings. Trails in the Panamint Range were built to points of scenic interest, and an adobe village, laundry and trading post were constructed for Shoshone Indians. Five campgrounds, restrooms, an airplane landing field and picnic facilities were also built.

Creation of the monument resulted in a temporary closing of the lands to prospecting and mining. However, Death Valley was quickly reopened to mining by Congressional action in June of the same year. As improvements in mining technology allowed lower grades of ore to be processed, and new heavy equipment allowed greater amounts of rock to be moved, mining in Death Valley changed. Gone were the days of the “single-blanket, jackass prospector” long associated with the romantic west. Open pit and strip mines scarred the landscape as international mining corporations bought claims in highly visible areas of the national monument. The public outcry that ensued led to greater protection for all national park and monument areas in the United States.

 

 

Abandoned mine shaft at Leadfield, timber roof support mine, (author: Daniel Mayer, 2003).
Abandoned mine shaft at Leadfield, timber roof support mine, (author: Daniel Mayer, 2003).

 

In 1976, Congress passed the Mining in the Parks Act, which closed Death Valley National Monument to the filing of new mining claims, banned open-pit mining and required the National Park Service to examine the validity of tens of thousands of pre-1976 mining claims. Mining was allowed to resume on a limited basis in 1980 with stricter environmental standards.

The park’s Resources Management Division monitors mining within park boundaries and continues to review the status of 125 unpatented mining claims and 19 patented claim groups, while ensuring that federal guidelines are followed and the park’s resources are protected. In 2005, the Billie Mine, an underground borax mine located along the road to Dante’s View, closed, ending mining in the park.

Death Valley National Monument was designated a biosphere reserve in 1984. On October 31, 1994, the monument was expanded by 1.3 million acres (5,300 km2) and re-designated as a national park, via congressional passage of the California Desert Protection Act (Public Law 103-433). Consequently, the elevated status for Death Valley made it the largest national park in the contiguous United States. Many of the larger cities and towns within the boundary of the regional ground water flow system that the park and its plants and animals rely upon are experiencing some of the fastest growth rates of any place in the United States. Notable examples within a 100-mile (160 km) radius of Death Valley National Park include Las Vegas and Pahrump, Nevada. In the case of Las Vegas, the local Chamber of Commerce estimates that 6,000 people are moving to the city every month. Between 1985 and 1995, the population of the Las Vegas Valley increased from 550,700 to 1,138,800.

 

 

Telescope and Wildrose Peaks from Emigrant Canyon Rd. (author: Tomdonohue1).
Telescope and Wildrose Peaks from Emigrant Canyon Rd. (author: Tomdonohue1).

 

 
 

In 1977, parts of Death Valley were used by director George Lucas as a filming location for Star Wars, providing the setting for the fictional planet Tatooine.

 

 

 

 

Geologic history

 

 

The deep Death Valley basin is filled with sediment (light yellow) eroded from the surrounding mountains. Black lines show some of the major faults that created the valley (source: Geology of Death Valley National Park, PD-US).
The deep Death Valley basin is filled with sediment (light yellow) eroded from the surrounding mountains. Black lines show some of the major faults that created the valley (source: Geology of Death Valley National Park, PD-US).

 

The park has a diverse and complex geologic history. Since its formation, the area that comprises the park has experienced at least four major periods of extensive volcanism, three or four periods of major sedimentation, and several intervals of major tectonic deformation where the crust has been reshaped. Two periods of glaciation (a series of ice ages) have also had effects on the area, although no glaciers ever existed in the ranges now in the park.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basement and Pahrump Group

 

Little is known about the history of the oldest exposed rocks in the area due to extensive metamorphism (alteration of rock by heat and pressure). Radiometric dating gives an age of 1,700 million years for the metamorphism during the Proterozoic. About 1,400 million years ago a mass of granite now in the Panamint Range intruded this complex. Uplift later exposed these rocks to nearly 500 million years of erosion.

The Proterozoic sedimentary formations of the Pahrump Group were deposited on these basement rocks. This occurred following uplift and erosion of any earlier sediments from the Proterozoic basement rocks. The Pahrump is composed of arkose conglomerate (quartz clasts in a concrete-like matrix) and mudstone in its lower part, followed by dolomite from carbonate banks topped by algal mats as stromatolites, and finished with basin-filling sediment derived from the above, including possible glacial till from the hypothesized Snowball Earth glaciation. The very youngest rocks in the Pahrump Group are basaltic lava flows.

 

 

The Noonday Dolomite was formed as a carbonate shelf after the break-up of Rodinia (source: USGS).
The Noonday Dolomite was formed as a carbonate shelf after the break-up of Rodinia (source: USGS).

 

 

 

Rifting and deposition

 

 

A rift opened and subsequently flooded the region as part of the breakup of the supercontinent Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic (by about 755 million years ago) and the creation of the Pacific Ocean. A shoreline similar to the present Atlantic Ocean margin of the United States lay to the east. An algal mat-covered carbonate bank was deposited, forming the Noonday Dolomite. Subsidence of the region occurred as the continental crust thinned and the newly formed Pacific widened, forming the Ibex Formation. An angular unconformity (an uneven gap in the geologic record) followed.

A true ocean basin developed to the west, breaking all the earlier formations along a steep front. A wedge of clastic sediment then began to accumulate at the base of the two underwater precipices, starting the formation of opposing continental shelfs. Three formations developed from sediment that accumulated on the wedge. The region’s first known fossils of complex life are found in the resulting formations. Notable among these are the Ediacara fauna and trilobites, the evolution of the latter being part of the Cambrian Explosion of life.

The sandy mudflats gave way about 550 million years ago to a carbonate platform (similar to the one around the present-day Bahamas), which lasted for the next 300 million years of Paleozoic time (refer to the middle of the timescale image). Death Valley’s position was then within ten or twenty degrees of the Paleozoic equator. Thick beds of carbonate-rich sediments were periodically interrupted by periods of emergence. Although details of geography varied during this immense interval of time, a north-northeasterly trending coastline generally ran from Arizona up through Utah. The resulting eight formations and one group are 20,000 feet (6 km) thick and underlay much of the Cottonwood, Funeral, Grapevine, and Panamint ranges.

 

 

 

Compression and uplift

 

In the early-to-mid- Mesozoic the western edge of the North American continent was pushed against the oceanic plate under the Pacific Ocean, creating a subduction zone.[38] A subduction zone is a type of contact between different crustal plates where heavier crust slides below lighter crust. Erupting volcanoes and uplifting mountains were created as a result, and the coastline was pushed to the west. The Sierran Arc started to form to the northwest from heat and pressure generated from subduction, and compressive forces caused thrust faults to develop.

A long period of uplift and erosion was concurrent with and followed the above events, creating a major unconformity, which is a large gap in the geologic record. Sediments worn off the Death Valley region were carried both east and west by wind and water.No Jurassic- to Eocene-aged sedimentary formations exist in the area, except for some possibly Jurassic-age volcanic rocks (see the top of the timescale image).

 

 

The Lake Manly lake system as it might have looked during its last maximum extent 22,000 years ago.
The Lake Manly lake system as it might have looked during its last maximum extent 22,000 years ago.

 

 

 

The Amargosa River near Shoreline Butte — entering southern Death Valley from the Amargosa Desert, in eastern California (author: MojaveNC, 2008).
The Amargosa River near Shoreline Butte — entering southern Death Valley from the Amargosa Desert, in eastern California. During very wet periods, the Amargosa River can flow at the surface, as it did in Death Valley during the wet winter of 2005. Wildflowers also peak during wetter years (author: MojaveNC, 2008).
 

 

 

Erosion over many millions of years created a relatively featureless plain. Thirty-five million years ago, sluggish streams migrated laterally over its surface. Several other similar formations were also laid down.

 

 

 

Stretching and lakes

 

Basin and Range-associated stretching of large parts of crust below southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico started around 16 million years ago and the region is still spreading. This stretching began to affect the Death and Panamint valleys area by 3 million years ago. Before this, rocks now in the Panamint Range were on top of rocks that would become the Black Mountains and the Cottonwood Mountains. Lateral and vertical transport of these blocks was accomplished by movement on normal faults. Right-lateral movement along strike-slip faults that run parallel to and at the base of the ranges also helped to develop the area. Torsional forces, probably associated with northwesterly movement of the Pacific Plate along the San Andreas Fault (west of the region), is responsible for the lateral movement.

Igneous activity associated with this stretching occurred from 12 million to 4 million years ago. Sedimentation is concentrated in valleys (basins) from material eroded from adjacent ranges. The amount of sediment deposited has roughly kept up with this subsidence, resulting in retention of more or less the same valley floor elevation over time.

Pleistocene ice ages started 2 million years ago, and melt from alpine glaciers on the nearby Sierra Nevada Mountains fed a series of lakes that filled Death and Panamint valleys and surrounding basins (see the top of the timescale image). The lake that filled Death Valley was the last of a chain of lakes fed by the Amargosa and Mojave Rivers, and possibly also the Owens River. The large lake that covered much of Death Valley’s floor, which geologists call Lake Manly, started to dry up 10,500 years ago. Saltpans and playas were created as ice age glaciers retreated, thus drastically reducing the lakes’ water source. Only faint shorelines are left.

 

 

 

 

Biology

 

Habitat varies from saltpan at 282 feet (86 m) below sea level to the sub-alpine conditions found on the summit of Telescope Peak, which rises to 11,049 feet (3,368 m).Vegetation zones include Creosote Bush, Desert Holly, and mesquite at the lower elevations and sage up through shadscale, blackbrush, Joshua Tree, pinyon-juniper, to Limber Pine and Bristlecone Pine woodlands. The saltpan is devoid of vegetation, and the rest of the valley floor and lower slopes have sparse cover, although where water is available, an abundance of vegetation is usually present. These zones and the adjacent desert support a variety of wildlife species, including 51 species of native mammals, 307 species of birds, 36 species of reptiles, 3 species of amphibians, and 2 species of native fish.

Small mammals are more numerous than large mammals, such as bighorn sheep, coyotes (image), bobcats, kit foxes, cougars, and mule deer. Mule deer are present in the pinyon/juniper associations of the Grapevine, Cottonwood, and Panamint ranges.Bighorn sheep are a rare species of mountain sheep that exist in isolated bands in the Sierra and in Death Valley. These are highly adaptable animals and can eat almost any plant. They have no known predators, but humans and burros compete for habitat.

 

Photograph of a male (yellowish color) and female (sandy color), Death Valley Pupfish spawning in Salt Creek (author: Mav, 2003).
Photograph of a male (yellowish color) and female (sandy color), Death Valley Pupfish spawning in Salt Creek (author: Mav, 2003).

 

The ancestors of the Death Valley Pupfish swam to the area from the Colorado River via a long-since dried-up system of rivers and lakes (see Lake Manly). They now live in two separate populations: one in Salt Creek and another in Cottonball Marsh. Death Valley is one of the hottest and driest places in North America, yet it is home to over 1,000 species of plants; 23 of which, including the very rare Rock Lady (Holmgrenanthe petrophila), are not found anywhere else.

 

 

A single-leaf pinyon from Mono County, California. The short stature and rounded crown are typical of the pinyon (author: Dcrjsr, 2010).
A single-leaf pinyon from Mono County, California. The short stature and rounded crown are typical of the pinyon (author: Dcrjsr, 2010).

 

Adaptation to the dry environment is key. For example, creosote bush and mesquite have tap-root systems that can extend 50 feet (15 m) down in order to take advantage of a year-round supply of ground water. The diversity of Death Valley’s plant communities results partly from the region’s location in a transition zone between the Mojave Desert, the Great Basin Desert and the Sonoran Desert. This location, combined with the great relief found within the Park, supports vegetation typical of three biotic life zones: the lower Sonoran, the Canadian, and the Arctic/Alpine in portions of the Panamint Range. Based on the Munz and Keck (1968) classifications, seven plant communities can be categorized within these life zones, each characterized by dominant vegetation and representative of three vegetation types: scrub, desert woodland, and coniferous forest. Microhabitats further subdivide some communities into zones, especially on the valley floor.

A bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva), showing both live and dead sections, and streaked grain colors on broad trunk (author: Dcrjsr, 2010).
A bristlecone pine (Pinus longaeva), showing both live and dead sections, and streaked grain colors on broad trunk (author: Dcrjsr, 2010).

 

 

 

Sphinx Moth on Rock Nettle in Mosaic Canyon (author: Danile Mayer, 2003).
Sphinx Moth on Rock Nettle in Mosaic Canyon (author: Danile Mayer, 2003).

 
 

Unlike more typical locations across the Mojave Desert, many of the water-dependent Death Valley habitats possess a diversity of plant and animal species that are not found anywhere else in the world. The existence of these species is due largely to a unique geologic history and the process of evolution that has progressed in habitats that have been isolated from one another since the Pleistocene epoch.

 

 

 

 

Activities

 

Sightseeing is available by personal automobile, four-wheel drive, bicycle, mountain bike (on established roadways only), and hiking. Riding through the park on motorcycle is also a popular pastime. State Route 190, the Badwater Road, the Scotty’s Castle Road, and paved roads to Dante’s View and Wildrose provide access to the major scenic viewpoints and historic points of interest. More than 350 miles (560 km) of unpaved and four-wheel-drive roads provide access to wilderness hiking, camping, and historical sites. All vehicles must be licensed and street legal. There are hiking trails of varying lengths and difficulties, but most backcountry areas are accessible only by cross-country hiking. There are thousands of hiking possibilities. The normal season for visiting the park is from October 15 to May 15, because of summer extremes in temperature. Costumed living history tours of the historic Death Valley Scotty’s Castle are conducted for a fee, but as of October 2015, are suspended due to flood damage to the Scotty’s Castle buildings and grounds.

 

 

 

A tourist sliding down Star Dune in the Mesquite Flat Dune field (author: Daniel Mayer, 2003).
A tourist sliding down Star Dune in the Mesquite Flat Dune field (author: Daniel Mayer, 2003).


 

 

There are nine designated campgrounds within the park, and overnight backcountry camping permits are available at the Visitor Center. Xanterra Parks & Resorts owns and operates a private resort, the Furnace Creek Inn and Ranch Resort, which comprises two separate and distinct hotels: the Furnace Creek Inn is a four-star historic hotel, and the Furnace Creek Ranch is a three-star ranch-style property reminiscent of the mining and prospecting days. Death Valley Lodging Company operates the Stovepipe Wells Village motel. Stovepipe Wells Village is the only authorized concession operations located in Death Valley National Park. There are a few motels near various entrances to the park, in Shoshone, Death Valley Junction, Beatty, Nevada, and Panamint Springs.

 

 

Sand dunes in Death Valley National Park (author: Brocken Inaglory, 2007).
Sand dunes in Death Valley National Park (author: Brocken Inaglory, 2007).

 

 

The visitor center is located in the Furnace Creek resort area on State Route 190. A 12-minute introductory slide program is shown every 30 minutes. During the winter season—November through April—rangers offer interpretive tours and a wide variety of walks, talks, and slide presentations about Death Valley cultural and natural history. The visitor center has displays dealing with the park’s geology, climate, wildlife and natural history. There are also specific sections dealing with the human history and pioneer experience. The Death Valley Natural History Association maintains a bookstore specifically geared to the natural and cultural history of the park.

Death Valley National Park is a popular location for stargazing as it has one of the darkest night skies in the United States. Despite Death Valley’s remote location, its air quality and night visibility are threatened by civilization. In particular, light pollution is introduced by nearby Las Vegas. The darkest skies are, in general, located in the northwest of the park.

 

 

A 360-degree panorama of Racetrack Playa at night. The Milky Way is visible as an arc in the center (author: Dan Duriscoe, 2005).
A 360-degree panorama of Racetrack Playa at night. The Milky Way is visible as an arc in the center (author: Dan Duriscoe, 2005).

 

 

 
Road toward the heart of Death Valley National Park ( maarabu on absfreepics.com).
Road toward the heart of Death Valley National Park ( maarabu on absfreepics.com).

Videos

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


Source :

https://en.wikipedia.org

http://www.absfreepics.com

https://www.google.com/Maps

https://www.youtube.com

 


 

1,270 thoughts on “Death Valley National Park, Utah

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  24. The Document Foundation è un utente di Apache HTTP Server, come mi sembra sia scritto chiaramente nel post, e utilizza questo software per gestire una dozzina di servizi. E’ saltato un “a capo” prima e dopo quel breve paragrafo, che può avere generato la confusione.

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  27. Foi curioso verificar que nenhum de nós fez um prato de queijo sem meter carne. E disseste uma coisa em relação aos queijos que também se aplica aos vinhos. Se é para submeter a elevadas temperaturas, usar o melhor é apenas para deitar dinheiro fora.e vamos à proxima, que promete…

  28. It absolutely boggles my mind that so many on the left, in the administration and “degreed economists” can see the utter stupidity of government intervention. I am struggling to think of one thing the Feds do thats on time and on budget. USPS? Nope. Amtrak? Nope. Social Security? Nope. Everything they touch turns to “fill in the blank”! My biggest issue is that Dr Parnell is not in DC right now hitting these guys over the head with a shovel (figuratively), before the completly ruin the greatest country on earth. Parnell for President!

  29. tracey · Hi Gabrielle – I’ve really tried to not buy too many magazines of late … but I’ll always find something new and wonderful like ‘Spaces’ to tempt me back! You’re right, it’s a great way to get lots of different ideas and a neat way of researching different colours and interior combinations.

  30. It looks fantastic! Thank you for giving me the inspiration to do something about the rusted, glass-topped coffee table from our old patio set. I didn't want to get rid of it, because it's very handy, but it looks so icky. I'm going to follow your steps for cleaning and prepping it, then will break out the Krylon!

  31. Caro Mario Pinto,Na verdade o comandante da CCaç 3326 era o Cap Mil José Paula de Carvalho. Esse oficial, com o posto de Alferes foi para a Guarda Fiscal, foi "repescado", como tantos outros, para servir no Ultramar.Um abraço,José Câmara

  32. Oui ca prend des valeurs en commun et des projets en commun. Les intérêts comme le hockey il peut aimer ca avec sa gang de boys. Je ferai plus de côtes levées et de frites. Pour le reste, ca prend de la complicité et de la chimie tant intellectuelle que sexuelle.

  33. >柿まあそういふことで。(ï½—"with a large persimmon fruit and two kurosuguri (blackberries) falling to the ground on one side, a small trailing branch of kurosuguri on the reverse">黒スグリ、、、(ï½—

  34. Cool. I’ve never been there and yes, I’m looking forward to part II. Whenever we went to San Diego we always went to the zoo or beach. And I used to have soccer tournaments there. Every Thanksgiving for years. I miss that.

  35. 上記、韓国語のコメントを日本語にしておきます。韓国人の間にこのような意見が出てきているのだとすれば、画期的なことだと思います。やはり、史料をあげて、ひとつひとつ丁寧に説明していくことが、韓国人側を変えるのにとても重要だと思います。Among almost all the fierce and "uncontrolled emotional" comments, I was very impressed with one of the comments from the Choson online site above.이 정수(greens22)독도문제는 감정적으로 대처할 문제가 아니다. 독도가 '대한민국'의 영토라는 역사적 고증을 체계적으로 제시해야한다. 그게 우리정부에 없다. 일본정부는 '논리적'으로 독도가 일본 영토임을 '과학적, 역사적'으로 입증하고 있다. UN국제사법재판소에 제소하면 100% 한국이 진다. 한국사를 모르는 사람들이 독도는 우리땅이라고 외쳐봐야 그건 '코메디'에 불과하다.[2010.05.17 18:39:26]イ・ジョンス(greens22)独島問題は、感情的に対処する問題ではない。独島が「大韓民国」の領土だという歴史的考証を体系的に提示しなければならない。それが私たちの政府にはない。日本政府は「論理的」に独島が日本領土であることを「科学的、歴史的」に立証している。 国連国際司法裁判所に提訴すれば100%韓国が負ける。 韓国史を知らない人々が、独島は私たちの領土だと叫んでみても、それは「コメディ」に過ぎない。[2010.05.17 18:39:26]それにしても、岡田さん、このタイミングでなかなかやりますね。日本側ではあまり報道されていないようですが。

  36. Yes- America rocks!!! We have been through it all!! We have fought and won all our battles–we have had ups and downs in our government–and we have managed through everything to stand tall and fly high! We have our flaws–yes-but what country is perfect?? Who always is there when other countries need help? America! People can call it what they will- but America is pretty dam nice place to be when you really think about it–

  37. Спасибо за информацию, пользовался Скайлинком за 1999 руб. месяц безлимитно, узнал про мегафон, задушила жаба, хотел перепрыгнуть.А они мошенники оказывается, ну их в жопу. Дорого но работает.Спасибо всем за коменты.Х-ню не куплю))

  38. Missed you evil woman, KK tell me you got video to complete our plan of KC actin a ‘foo. Congrats again, beautiful dress!! Evil assholes shouldn’t be near red wine..but maybe they knew you loved your some vampires?

  39. “she only looks sweet and innocent” … why yes, as a matter of fact you do. Sweet and innocent, with a glint of something fiendishly brilliant “When they’re dancing on the tables, you know the evening’s gone too far” … too far? I say the party is just beginning! Those were the days?Pah!Just because you live in suburbia and work for the government, does not mean the end of those days … take them by the hand, hell, you could even embrace them … you never know where it might take you

  40. That makes sense, and I can't believe I missed it. 'The Black Album' is about a young Muslim revolutionary in the UK, 'Children of Me' has its narrator involved in undermining his best friend, the PM, and 'Last King of Scotland' is very political, behind the scenes with Idi Amin.

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  43. Great interview!I do agree with Patrick on dystopian novels not really about the future. I've always thought they were a parallel world to us. I think the appeal for me is not knowing what the other side of the world holds and these novels implant ideas of what it could be like. I've alway been a fan of dystopian novels and movies..it's a form of escapism for me. I'm fascinated with alternative realities :)vision.nguyen AT gmail DOT com

  44. Larry Sinclair's allegations were aired in 2007 on the internet. LS's allegations were also widely reported in the tabloid magazines AFTER Obama was elected president. Larry Sinclair is a convicted drug dealer. No one who is anybody cares about this story. Obama's people know about this man and would destroy him in a heartbeat if they thought he was a serious threat to Obama's presidency.

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  46. BTW, anyone else think it’s cool that someone like Kevin Durant is literally attending the draft, seemingly approving of each of his new teammates. Cool guy, I can’t imagine Kobe or LeBron caring that much.

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  48. stunning… loved Anna Wintour's ensemble and Donna Karan looks amazing! well..they all did!!! Lady Gaga….mmm.. not sure on that one..wish I could see her in something truly chic…not so circus like… just my 2 cents…

  49. I am dying looking at that photo of the bread pudding!! I really, really, really, REALLY want to try it, but I’m not overly interested in dinner at Ohana. I guess I am going to have to change my tune. Maybe Ohana and Wishes?

  50. I vari provider come Wind, Libero Infostrada, etc, hanno smentito Telecom affermando che la storia dei virus non può reggere; infatti, è assolutamente impossibile che dei virus possano intasare esclusivamente la Rete italiana senza riuscire a sconfinare all’estero!Gli stessi provider hanno anche aggiunto che sicuramente il problema riguarda la rete Telecom e anche loro ne stanno subendo le conseguenze senza poter intervenire.

  51. So So Sorry Lexi! It sounds like your crock pot was too large for the ingredients you chose to use. If in the future you need to make half a recipe you need to use a smaller crock pot. To cook properly the crock should be 1/2 to 3/4 full. Please try again! It really is good, and you may want to cook it for a shorter length of time as well. Happy Crocking!

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  57. Answer: Julian Assange certainly has a lot of the same issues as top athletes and pop stars. He could be prosecuted under the espionage act, but that would be a very dangerous precedent for First Amendment law. Shane believes it is hard to draw a line between what Assange does and what American journalists do.

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  60. feliz cumpleaños! Un blog personal me parece siempre una suerte de cuarto propio, a la Woolf, con diminutas ventanitas por las cuales pueden asomarse apenas unos cuantos, los que quizá comparten una misma frecuencia en un mundo lleno de señales.Sigue escribiendo durante mucho tiempo más!

  61. our walk starts in Cardigan tomorrow, we were at the V Wright Show yesterday at Troopers Inn, what a lovely show despite the weather, had a couple of nice offers of help with this walk so thanks to those nice folks…looking forward to seeing you on the way round, sponsorship still collected and very very welcome and look out for us on route to give us a wave…:)

  62. Premetto che vado totalmente a memoria, quindi potrei anche confondermi.Eppure questo testo non mi è nuovo.È stato riportato in un articolo, nel 2007 (tra marzo e maggio), su «La Stampa». Si parlava, ovviamente, di xenofobia.Ciò che mi stupisce è che – vado a memoria – mi pare che in quel caso l'attribuzione fosse ai Francesi (che vedevano così gli italiani), nell'Ottocento.Provo a vedere se da qualche parte trovo quell'articolo…

  63. Excellent article!I think part of our problem (very small part) is that in our society of instant-gratification, no one has the strength to do what it takes day after day to stop the terrorists. We, as a society, don't have what it takes to fight the good fight for a prolonged time. We are used to pushing a button or two and having the information we want or having a problem solved. The people who want us dead are more than willing to take whatever time needed to make it happen. We need to think the same way.

  64. Jacquelyn Rebecca, I love that picture! Trent is precious. We really appreciate you coming all the way down here and taking our family photographs. Trent was exhausted when we finished and he fell a sleep right away Thanks! We can’t wait to see the rest of the pictures and I am sure they are fantastic as well. You were great to work with and Trent just loved Brody. Again thanks a lot.The Pettipas’

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  74. Haahhahahah varför skulle just denna stackars gamla dam vara Odds mormor? Det här är ju hilarious. Finns ju ingenting som stödjer att detta skulle vara sant. Uppenbarligen så är det inte sant eftersom att lägenheten låg ute på hemnet tidigare, vilket även jag såg och var inne och tittade på den själv. Lustiga människor det finns.

  75. AI, TUDO LINDO’Ok, tem livros ai que eu SABIA que não faltaria, tipo Tweet Heart e The Ghost and the Goth!E tem uns que super estão na minha lista, tipo Falling in Love With e Deadly little…Poxa outros definitivamente irão para a lista (e eu vou enlouquecer, juro)…Enfim, mts livros bons!BjssEvellyn recently posted..[]

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  77. sono bellissimi…. ora ho anke il dvd di harry potter e i doni dellla morte p. 1……. xò so gia cm andra a finire….. ho letto tt e 7 i libri….. e i malfoy sn seempre stati la mia famiglia preferita in harry potter….. <3

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  84. grand… !!!.. I have one thought.. knowledge is probably a quantum event .. not a continuous one.. so.. big leaps in ‘knowing will happen at certain experiences.. like experimenting… the present school system.. shuns this aspect.. and rote … continuous method leads to just…. u know what..  If learning is experience oriented .. just like it used to be in ancient times… then knowledge will be the target and way.. both. sadhana and sadhya.. ! just like old times..

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  86. Thanks a lot for your post. I’d really like to comment that the tariff of car insurance differs from one scheme to another, since there are so many different facets which give rise to the overall cost. For instance, the make and model of the motor vehicle will have a massive bearing on the price. A reliable outdated family automobile will have a more affordable premium over a flashy sports car.

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  88. Bluth.No problem with the Doubting Thomases and Thomasinas. Brother Dawkins himself has said — well, tweeted — that Thomas is the patron saint of scientists. It’s the “Blessed … that have not seen, and yet have believed*” who are the freaking problem… unless… unless… Say — do you think we could sell dispensations? Indulgences, even? That could balance the books in no time flat.John 20:29 2

  89. na lien oyo ya wikileaks okomona que depuis 1998 la CIA s’interresse au fils ainé de LDKabila….on peut lire:JKK(joseph kabila kabange),fils de LDKabila a étudié à Cuba et y a suivi une formation militaire la CIA se demande si il aurait suivi d’autres formations …alors ton histoire de taximan, je ne sais pas d’où ça vient…

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  92. “We need more ministers, educators, corporate heads, and political leaders speaking out and endorsing divine law.”We don’t have “divine law” in the U.S. We have the rule of law and it specifically forbids the establishment of religion. I’m scared to think about what you might intend with your version of “divine law” applied in other contexts besides marriage. But I don’t even know why I bother commenting on your blog since you never take the time to defend or clarify your positions or apologize for your mistakes.

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  94. Scotland is just a liiiiiitle bit far from Jacksonville. Although, I’m sure Louie’s chip shop, the best chip shop around, will tempt them. Bet they’d be up for trying a deep fat fried Mars Bar.

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  96. That’s why I love that we have someone on staff who’s primary role is to keep us externally focused (as individuals, departments, and community as a whole). The holy huddle does nothing but feed the perception that Christians are a hypocritical clique.

  97. ooorale carnal, neta felicidades por tu pagina =)muyy chida esta rola hee..y solo quería hacer una pequeña observación (con tu permiso claro)en esta parte:: Slipping in my faith until I fallme parece que lo mas adecuado sería:: Deslizandome en mi fé hasta que caigaeso es lo que yo creo mi inglés no es muy bueno asi que espero me aclares si estoy o no en lo correcto te agradezco anticipadamente, un saludo…bYE[]

  98. Personnellement, physiquement parlant, je préfère les femmes fines, c’est vrai…Mais je trouve qu’il y a de très jolies femmes qui sont rondes.Après, finalement, tout est une question de beauté de l’âme Et puis nous sommes naturellement attiré par une personne qui nous correspond, et qui vibre de la même façon que nous.Belle séance à toi Nadège, et Excellent week-end,Sridar

  99. Today, I went to the beach front with my kids. I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said “You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear.” She put the shell to her ear and screamed. There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back! LoL I know this is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!

  100. We have tried the Lickety Stik in the Liver flavor and still have some left. We have 5 small dogs and they absolutely LOVE it. I am very excited about the new flavors for them and can’t wait to see how they enjoy those as well. Thanks for making a treat for them I don’t have to be concerned about!

  101. 男同性戀者比較容易感染,就算不計肛交,濫交也是個重要的因素。相比兩性而言,男性會較傾向(當然不是一定)有較多性伴侶。演化中的壓力應該是讓男性重量多於質,而女性重質多於量。所以在社會中配對起來,雖然男女都會濫交,但性伴侶數字應該大體會是「ç”·ç”·」>「男女」>「女女」。男同性戀者的性伴侶比異性戀者多,是正常傾向。當然,就算「女同性戀者比異性戀者更堅貞」是真的(我沒數據),明光社也不會提的。

  102. Días pasados envié una nota al sindicato que nos nuclea para que al Sr. Ariel lo inhabiliten de forma permanente para operar en radio taxis por sus expresiones xenofobicas contra nuestro gremio.

  103. Yeah, super easy to freeze tomatillos. If just freezing them raw, I de-husk, rinse, dry and throw them into a bag (I should probably blanch first but I don’t). I mainly use them in soups and stews that way. If you have time, probably better to roast a whole bunch and then freeze, since you’re most likely to want them roasted anyway. But you might still be able to roast them from the freezer if you lose a little of the liquid after thawing (painful may it be to drain them).

  104. The State needs people willing to die for it. Muslims may die for their beliefs, but they won’t die for Western secular States like the EU. So this analysis is flawed. The Islamic advance in the West is due to both the superior willpower of the Islamists, and their instrumentalisation by the cultural Marxists, who both control the bureaucracies of the States and wish to see western civilisation ended.

  105. Il faut effectivement appliquer un abattement significatif sur la résidence principale (1 ME) pour éviter que des gens dont c’est l’essentiel du patrimoine soient taxés à l’ISF. Mais il faut supprimer la réduction d’impôt pour le soutien scolaire car ceux qui en ont le plus besoin, leurs parents ne paient pas l’IRPP. Le coût de cette réduction d’impôt doit être transformé en crédit d’impôt.

  106. i hope that dwight will come to Lakers.. its a fact..he is a superstar, he can fill in seats, had the guts..i like andrew too to be in laker uniform, however, his time has come…but Kobe’s time is running out..please pair Kobe with Dwight, we need to enchance Kobe’s ring total..we need no to waste his fruiful years…he might be the GOAT in due time…as a fanatic, there is a big difference with Howard / Bynum, take out all the numbers, and see for yourself…

  107. D’accord avec tout sauf TVD ! Les spectateurs râlaient depuis je ne sais combien de temps pour qu’elle devienne enfin vampire, alors moi j’étais bien content que ça arrive et j’avais hâte de revenir la saison prochaine pour voir comme cela serait traité !

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  109. lamid : Poutine l’a aussi employé (le terme de croisade), juste avant Guéant. J’ajouterai que les orthodoxes ont autant été la cible des croisés que les musulmans. Le sac de Constantinople et les exactions des croisés sont encore présents dans beaucoup d’esprits. En Grèce, les catholiques sont encore appelés les « Francs ». Il faut dire que la France y est encore officiellement la « Gaule » (Gallia).

  110. This is so funny — I was JUST telling my husband about the Whitman line with the word “yawp” last night — though I didn’t remember the whole line, and I didn’t remember it was Whitman’s. I actually was thinking of the scene in “Dead Poets’ Society” where Robin Williams’ character coaches the student to *really* “YAWP!!” like he *means* it because my husband is directing a high school play and wants to teach the kids how to really move *beyond* themselves into the characters they are portraying.Odd how some ideas come to us in various ways at about the same time!! Holy Spirit? Um, I think so!!

  111. Tak vás, přátelé, vÅ¡echny zdravím a pÅ™eji vÅ¡e nejlepší do Nového roku.Jinak – opÄ›t se mi nevyplatila moje liknavost… Kvůli povÄ›tří jsem stále odkládal odlétání posledního kola, a dnes je to venku tak zamlžené, že je lépe být doma, než s modelem na louce. Takže si musím vystačit jen se sedmi odlétanými koly, místo abych mÄ›l požadovaných osm… Mohu se tedy jen těšit na první letoÅ¡ní kolo .Petr.

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  115. No not me, You go educate yourself. It is that fail to learn that right from the start the thieves in the U.S. had armed Cheng Kai Shek’s army and tried to keep China under control as a colony or white thieves occupied area. The thieves in the U.s. had been involving in China since the end of WWII until it ended with the Tienanman Square riots. You are politically motovated in our discussion, so you conveniently omot this fact from our discussion.

  116. ProwadzÄ™ tu taki cykl “Historie amerykaÅ„skie”, takie tam fascynacje z dzieciÅ„stwa, nigdy przecież nie byÅ‚em w Ameryce i nigdy nie bÄ™dÄ™. JeÅ›li chcesz to zajrzyj do tekstu pod tytuÅ‚em “Tashunka Witko”. A z tymi Apaczami to rzeczywiÅ›cie niespodzianka, pewnie zajmuje ich teraz tylko hazard. Co do Cochise’a – piÄ™kna postać.

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  118. You played a song at 8:45 a.m. this morning that I adored. But when I rushed home to see what the song was (and download it with a quickness), I found that Now Playing History is missing the entire 8 a.m. hour. Can you update the history? All the songs this morning were great, but that was a new one on me.

  119. vc tem q deixar rolar feche bem os olhos e deixar o outro lado conduzir (se ele souber beijar) tome muito cuidado coma mao boba deles pq sou um mais ja tenhu intimidade pra fazer com minha namo mais nao eh o caso como dizia deixa rolar naturalmente ai vc descobre se eh bom ou boa de bj a e cuidado pra nao juntar muita saliva ^^ flws

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  121. « Il est un point que je veux établir très clairement, c’est que le choix de ces ready-mades ne me fut jamais dicté par quelque délectation esthétique. Ce choix était fondé sur une réaction d’indifférence visuelle, assortie au même moment à une absence totale de bon ou mauvais goût… en fait une anesthésie complète. »Marcel DuchampAlors Aware, le glissement dans la Pissotière héroïque!

  122. Anónimo: Hace más de dos años que escribí este post, ahora puedo decirte que ella nunca regresó. Las cosas nunca pudieron ser iguales. No soy partícipe de la idea de las rupturas en el noviazgo ya que cada una desgasta la relación hasta que el grado de deterioro es irremediable. Lo que puedo aconsejarte es que busques de Dios, pídele que te indique qué hacer, un día estuve en la situación arriba mencionada y solo con Su ayuda pude salir adelante. Espero que todo salga bien.

  123. Monza, you don’t have Internet or opinions when you’re in Haifa? As for Mr. Obama, sometimes I think he sees his job as the moderator in a debate, nothing more. I hope his popularity is at the same level when the 2012 elections come around. I worry that something will happen to make people forget, and that he’ll get re-elected.

  124. 窗格的畫法 ◎窗格的畫法 (EX:602、603)一個矩形內分佈許多等邊長的窗格,並以相同的間隙進行矩形陣列※分析有602、603å…©é¡Œ,但603的窗格尺寸都已標明,不一定要用此方法,故以602為典型方法一(比例法):1.試情況將外框以OFFSET偏移並以X分解2.以掣點拉伸法,縮短並減去空隙的距離3.確定XY方向要陣列幾個,就以SC縮放幾分之一,如Y方向有6個,就縮小1/64.以此輪廓畫出矩形,刪除多餘線段5.再以AR陣列即可完成(視情況以TK鎖點配合)方法二(QC計算機法):1.試情況將外框以OFFSET偏移2.矩形REC > D(尺寸) > 輸入「‘QC」(或Ctrl+8或點選大計算機) > 點選「兩點之間的距離」後再減去空隙 > 除以X或Y方向的數目 > 套用回指令行,直至矩形生成3.刪除多餘線段,再以AR陣列即可完成(視情況以TK鎖點配合)

  125. ”Jag fÃ¥r bara ont i magen dÃ¥ jag läser hur vi ansvarar för ungarnas lärande!”Finns det nÃ¥gra nyanser här att utveckla? Jag tänker att du rusar in i ansvarsrelationer (finns det nÃ¥gra andra?) och samtidigt försöker skapa en hinna av självständighet och eget ansvar hos barnen.Den här motsägelsefulla dubbelheten av beroende, kontroll, uppmuntran och Ã¥ andra sidan individuella utmaningar (du ska inte lära dig nÃ¥got för min skull!) tror jag är knäckfrÃ¥gan.Vi behöver gräva vidare i begreppet ”ansvar”!

  126. Ma méthode n’est pas gravée dans la roche, il faut évidement l’adapter à ça personne.Preuve en est ta façon de faire qui se rapproche de la mienne, mais qui colle mieux à ta personnalité.En tout cas, merci d’avoir laissé ce petit commentaire, ça me fait vraiment plaisir.J’en profite pour encore une fois invité tous mes lecteurs à passer sur ton blog qui est une vraie perle!!!

  127. Mielenkiintoista!Pakko tehdä oma tilasto tänä vuonna lukemistani, koska mutuni on, että luen miesten kirjoittamia enemmän.Katsotaan!*väliaikamusiikkia*Miehet:31Naiset:27Seka: 2 (novelliantologia, jossa on sekä miesten että naisten novelleja)Noniin. Oikealta tuntuu.Luulen tämän johtuvan suosikkigenreistäni. Miehet kirjoittavat paljon kauhua ja fantasiaa. Jos lukisin enemmän romantiikkaa, niin kirjalista lienisi naisvoittoisempi 🙂

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  129. Li por ai tb q a intenção dele poderia ser tirar a atenção do que foi escrito por Jackie Stewart sobre os traçados de Tilke e td mais… Falando essas coisas absurdas ele faz com q os reporteres no inicio da semana q vem com o retorno dos testes se concentrem em outros assuntos para comentar com os pilotos ao inves de falar sobre os Tilkodromos.Oq importa é q de uma forma ou de outra o velho n tem nada de besta.Abraços Ico…PS: ficou sabendo q o Mike resolveu parar com o Formula UK!!! Pena!

  130. tình yêu vốn không có chỗ cho sự lừa dối. tuy nhiên, chính những suy nghĩ cổ hủ, đánh đồng một bộ phận mỏng manh của người con gái với nhân cách con người đã giết chết tình yêu và cướp luôn 1 mạng người. có đáng không?

  131. Mariana andradeSim.. retire o protetor todo com demaquilante.. sem umedecer a pele e depois, passe a espuma do sabonete p enxaguar tudo.Mas eu não conheço o demaquilante que você usa.. espero que ele retire o filtro.. pq nem todos os demaquilantes conseguem tbm.. eu preferi um para make à prova d’água.Acredite, a aderência do minesol nem se compara…rs.. eu usei esse filtro por quase dois anos.. nem precisei usar demaquilante p isso… só sabonete mesmo e tônico..

  132. seulement la défaillance technique : que je ne comprends absolument pas , et imaginez un peu ce que serait l’embarras et la confusion!Ceci dit, si cette « affaire » Masud Khan m’a semblé aussi intéressante,c’est qu’elle fait écho à ce qui s’y avance de la figure du « maître » -de dixième mot du billet- et de ses questions dans la transmission , et de la place des « choses écrites » : ce dont l’auteur de l’article rend très bien compte.

  133. adorée!!! todas las cocinas que publicas son hermosas… pero mi problema es cómo hacer para que me quede la cocina tan prolija??? hay mucha gente en mi casa y encima son desordenados! XD por ejemplo me compre la escalerita que se hace banquito ( o al reves :p) y siempre esta en el mdio del pasillo estorbando! algun dia tendre una cocina ordenada 🙂 besos

  134. Michela 17 luglio 2012 Io lavoro in salotto, dove c’è l’aria condizionata (rigorosamente in dry mode), è la stanza più grande e mi sembra per questo più ariosa comunque, e precisamente seduta sul divano nelle posizioni più (s)comode. Il richiamo del divano a volte è terribile, ma resisto, resisto, resisto… magari però riposo un momento gli occhi e basta… quando ciondola la testa, mi trasferisco in cucina, soprattutto durante la digestione, altrimenti è finita.

  135. Very good article, issues and proposed solutions were well-articulated. Thank you!I do have a question on mVoIP use case. Do users use mVoIP apps for domestic mobile voice call? I tend to only use mVoIP for overseas call to save on overseas phone bill. Domestic calls, as you have mentioned, are better served by traditional voice call since we have free minutes and convenience of contact book.

  136. I think that is one of the such a lot significant info for me. And i am happy reading your article. However wanna observation on few general things, The site taste is ideal, the articles is really excellent : D. Just right activity, cheers

  137. “I don’t decry Bertrand Russell ”You’re more than welcome to? try. What would you say? That he was so ridiculously…logical? …sensible? …ethical? Atheists wouldn’t take umbrage at anyone challenging their worldview. Just like scientific theories, freethought thrives on competing views, as long as they can demonstrate their validity.“Spaghetti Monster… Atheist don’t plagiarize.”Do you even know what plagiarism is? There was none involved in my post. The FSM is in the public domain.

  138. , people have to feel that it provides them with enough benefits to make its preservation worthwhile.Economics and business aside, the rate of youth unemployment in Europe is a threat to political stability and a challenge for governments to address in the face of austerity measures.

  139. “걸그룹” 달샤벳을 지키기 위한 싸움은 진행중입니다. 반드시 지켜내라!!달샤베트 따위 마이너한 그림책 따위에 밀리지 마라!달샤벳 화이팅! 이기고 승리기념 팬들을 위한 프리허그 행사도 한번 가자 ㅋㅋㅋ

  140. add this to the shift in assets from tangible to financial & the shift in income to sub status from C corp, we must wonder if we are treating a disease that has been poorly diagnosed, similar to the overstatement of the uninsured.

  141. Los felicito por el ejercicio científico que, de manera ponderada, están realizando. Respetuosamente, desearía conectarme con uno de sus astrofísicos para examinar y estudiar el tema de los espacios y tiempos diferenciales -que años atrás concebí como teoría comprensiva y explicativa del orden creado-, como aporte a la ciencia. Soy abogado y filósofo; no físico ni matemático, pero desesaría que el concepto y la formulación ecuacional para explicarlos fuesen estudiados de manera especial. Que DIOS nos siga bendiciendo. Bernardo Carreño Gómez.

  142. I discovered your blog site on google and check a few of your early posts. Continue to keep up the very good operate. I just additional up your RSS feed to my MSN News Reader. Seeking forward to reading more from you later on!…

  143. So it gets rid of wrinkles? I have wrinkles around my eyes. It hints it will get rid of freckles…(lightening action)…maybe I will have to try some…hmm… Hah, if I used the Nuka to Fukuro, I’d get a rash. That part of the rice I am allergic to. I could try to Azuki stuff, though. Did you buy from the Chidoriya? It’s so nice to see you posting again 🙂

  144. First baseball game I saw was in the Original Yankee Stadium. Tommy Lasoda gave my Dad tickets to take his kids. Get there and they are in the first row of UD and my seat is directly behind a large beam. Can’t see squat. Did see a rookie Bobby Mercer get a broken bat single. Of course I was leaning way right to see it. Hey Tommy, how about better seats next time!!!!

  145. Mr. Burns 4  1 Ich glaube, ich hole mal ‘ne Pumpgun und kontrolliere das Kinderzimmer bevor ich die Kleine ins Bett bringe, man weiß ja nie.Scherz beiseite, dass Video ist echt der Knaller. Wenn ihr aber sicher sein wollt, dass eure lieben Kleinen heute Nacht nicht schlafen können, dann zeigt ihnen das Video ( für die ja wohl total ungeeignet).

  146. Merci encore pour la découverte !Pour s’amuser, il faudrait rechercher le nombre de fois que revient le mot « ennui » sur votre blog, et mieux encore, de le comparer à d’autres blogs musicaux, type fluctuat. La lutte contre l’ennui semble pour vous un des moteurs de la création musicale, non ?

  147. Magnificent goods from you, man. I have remember your stuff previous to and you are simply extremely fantastic. I really like what you have obtained right here, really like what you are saying and the best way during which you are saying it. You make it enjoyable and you continue to care for to stay it sensible. I can’t wait to read much more from you. This is actually a terrific site.

  148. ! I read the article when it came out and really wished for Adrienne Wald to post a followup explaining what exactly she meant. I just can’t fathom people feeling that way. It’s just silliness.

  149. Thank you for another vital write-up. Where else could anyone get that type of data in these a complete way of writing? I’ve a presentation incoming week, and I am on the lookout for this kind of data.

  150. Was hat meine Meinung über Selbstmörder mit Leuten zu tun die unverschuldet in Not geraten? Wer sagt dir das ich da keine persönlichen Erfahrungen mit gemacht habe? Ich denke nicht das die Freitod Diskussion etwas mit dem Thema zu tun hast, wenn du aber Interesse an einem Diskurs hast kannst du mir gerne eine e-mail zukommen lassen.

  151. moi j’ai ma fille de 6 ans qui a 2 plombage depuis mardi je suis vraiment trés inquiéte car j’ai dit a la dentiste vous lui mettez quoi el me dit plombage est ce risquer a son age ? si in professionnel pourrais me renseigner car je suis vraiment stresser je n’arrive plu a dormir

  152. My name is Mackenzie. Damn, that was liberating. Okay, not really…but, now you know. If anybody tries to tell me how they just named their kid Mackenzie or how their grandkid (who am I kidding, do grandma’s blog?) Mackenzie, I will scream. I get that at least once a week. My name is so unoriginal that it’s not even funny.Sorry, I had to vent.

  153. I think there is supposed to be a Diane flashback (in the 1930′s) this season in episode 6 “I wish I was the Moon” her name is Mavis though (I still think it could be Diane. In episode 8 there is a flashback with a man named Virgil. I read that Virgil was the name of Dianes husband. The qoute “God is Dead” was written on the Paleyfest poster. On one of the coffins (I am guessing Dianes coffin) along the side were written the words “God is Dead” in German. Hmm….. don’t know what all this means though.   0 likes

  154. Thanks for the excellent addition, Brent.I think it does illustrate that Nulls can be tricky since they may be treated differently in different, like how it could appear to be “false” when tested in a If/Then construct but if that’s what we walked away with, we’d be in hot water in other cases. For that reason, I tend to think it’s a good practice to always write code that will handle all possible cases not just gracefully but also consistent so we don’t get unexpected surprises. Ben

  155. Questo commento è stato appena pubblicato in tedesco e in italiano sulla nostra (ex) pagina di facebook :“Noi Impossessate l’Amministrazione di questo gruppo offensivo per le donne e per le persone intelligenti. Chiediamo a che tutte le donne qui essere consapevoli di disponibile per evitare le aderenze superficiale”.E’ evidente, a questo punto, che non si tratta di un provocatore isolato.Fabrizio

  156. Hallo Papi,nachdem ich so fleißig den Rasen am Tuinhuis gemäht habe, hätte ich eigentlich eine aktuellere Berichterstattung erhofft. Wie es scheint habt ihr ja die gefährlichen Brandherde inzwischen durchquert. Wie ich soeben von Mami erfahren habe, sind die ersten 450 km geschafft und jetzt ruft der Berg.Alles Gute für die weitere Fahrt auch an deinen Begleiter.Natascha

  157. Nope! She is a very attractive young lady BUT this is not flattering. She is trying way to hard…. that blonde has got to go. I guess its the image she is tryna go for, its wack. Stop growing up too fast young ladies enjoy all of your youth and keep it sacred. The music biz makes these ladies grow up waaaaay to fast if they let them.

  158. Would you encourage a company that has a local presence in the chicago area without a web presence but trying with limited funds to gain national or global exposure to enter this contest? I am a producer of Bath and Body and Home products that are Gluten Free and Organic. I’m known for creating decadent natural eco chic products without harsh chemicals and detergents. What would you say?

  159. अगदी बरोबर बोललात काका..माझ्या ऐकण्यात आलाय की ह्या जनगणनेवाल्या अधिकार्‍यासोबत एक पोलीस असावा लागतो माहीत नाही पण ती खरच गरज आहे कारण ह्या अधिकार्‍यांना (विशेषत: स्त्रियांना) अश्या अश्या ठिकाणी जाव लागत की……असोदुसरी बाजू तेवढीच भक्कम मांडलीत आपण..अभिनंदन

  160. The existence of a Force greater than ourselves is self-evident. The need for human obeisance and worship is less so. The competition for naming rights, dominant moral code, and most blessed document status would be amusing if it were not so tragic. David Warren’s religious fervour makes little sense to me but maybe osmosis will bring enlightenment as I navigate the gentle proselytization on the way to wit and wisdom.

  161. Heroes habe ich bis jetzt komplett geguckt.Mit Firefly: vielleicht liegt es daran, dass ich Sci-Fi-Fan bin? Diesen Comedy Effekt finde ich fehl am Platz, wenn es um Raumschiffe geht.70s Show fand ich immer witzig, wenn ich es zufällig im TV gesehen habe, habe noch nie dran gedacht, mit das komplett zu besorgen.

  162. Think the Obama girls will be on the cover of every magazine in the country before this is over.As a father of a daughter, I KNOW those little girls have Obama’s heart strings wrapped around their little fingers…As well as much of America.Maybe it will change the attitudes of folks who think missing little black girls are less important than missing little blue eyed blonde ones in the news…Now, THAT would be change you can believe in.

  163. hyperflow This Gen Xer does not support Paul RyanOn average, Gen-X believes government supports reelection campaigns and corporate pledges well before anything “citizen” related. The internet has made it easier for media centralization.The internet will make it easier for media decentralization.Ebb and flow.This too will pass. Paul Ryan is at best an anachronism, but makes no sense in this present reality.

  164. Thanks for all the links recently. I read Mike Ervin’s column and left a comment. I’ve been reading on The Progressive to get Howard Zinn’s columns, but Ervin is new to me. (Zinn’s death is a loss of large proportions to many.)

  165. Cześć Mati widzę,że czas masz zapełniony na maxa,to świetnie nie dopadnie Cię nuda:-).Trochę czasu spędzonego z kolegami to bardzo fajna rzecz. Malowanie piaskiem to świetna zabawa,a ozdabianie pierniczków ma te dobre strony,że od razu można sprawdzić czy oprócz dobrego wyglądu jest też smaczny:-):-). Mati a kogo będziesz grał w Jasełkach? Pozdrawiam Ciebie i Twoją Mamusię serdecznie i życzę miłego dnia:-)

  166. Что интересно так это то что с особыми почестями у нас хоронят бандитов, воров, казнокрадов. Там весь бомонд в лице чиновников, депутатов, артистов слезами умывается, дорогущими букетами могилы усыпает. Жуть….

  167. Brian, I like what you are doing here..I will be visiting this blog. I found myself thinking of the hymn “Gather us in”.I think we will like having this tool for communication. It opens my thoughts to consider the whole community of Nebraska Synod brothers and sisters.

  168. I'm not sure that it is a good idea that MLK gets his own holidays and statues and things when we now know he was such a plagiarist.Your post reminds me of the South Park episode where the kids have to choose a new mascot (due to PETA intervention) and the choice ends up being between a giant douche and a turd sandwich. Later Puff Daddy show up to shoot anyone who doesn't vote.

  169. I admit I don’t read an awful lot of Harlequin, but yeah, that about sums up what I’ve seen. (Oh, yeah, a girl can find a millionaire on every street corner–yeesh!). There’s also cowboys…I think. They’re pretty big in the genre too, aren’t they? There’s also the vampire hunter who falls for the vamp, or the werewolf and the Lord of the Manor. um…I’m sure there’s more out there. I just can’t think yet. Need coffee.

  170. Zenen, le felicito en su convicción y entereza por la causa de La Libertad de Cuba.Gracias por considerarme entre sus allegados, como tambien me hace sentir honrradopoder colaborar con mi grano de arena en su hermoso y honesto proyecto de unidadentre todos los cubanos que desean el fin de la tirania castrista. Salud y Suerte en sutrabajo. Cuente tambien conmigo. TODO POR CUBA. Manuel Carril

  171. | I got the album before it got released because I supported Jonathan Thulin in his fundraising campaign. I’ve never been more satisfied buying an album than this! I’ve been playing it straight through at least 50 times already and still find it interesting, catching, captivating, and thoughtful. The lyrics are wonderful, but most of all, Thulin’s voice is amazing, and he makes better use of it in this album than his last one. I would give it 5 of 5 in rating!

  172. Tätä olen paljon miettinyt, miksi ihmiset värjäävät tukkiansa IHAN koko ajan. Jos haluaa vältellä kemikaaleja, niin tämä nyt olisi ensimmäinen asia, josta tinkiä. Enkä kyllä henk.koht. laittaisi mitään luonnonmukaisempiakaan värejä päähän.Vaan hyvähän se on, että on vaihtoehtoja, jos nyt kerran välttämättä päätään haluaa myrkyttää.

  173. interesting review, gotta try this place.1) nothing really bad found about the food2) you managed to have some fun, even discussion.if I was a food critic I would suspiciously chew every bite and take pictures and no fun would be involved 🙂

  174. Лучше сразу, как от любой плохой привычки. Если постепенно, то вряд ли эта привычка тебя отпустит. Больший вред организму наносится именно этой привычкой, а ее отсутствие поможет тебе правильно управлять своими мыслями и своим телом. Каждое дело начинается с мыслей. Умей их контролировать. Сперва может трудно, но потом намного легче. Успехов!

  175. Dona Leila,“Caro Olegário, lembre-se de que não sou sua filha e trate de escrever passando, no mínimo, tolerância, que é o que espero de alguém como você.”Olha, o “filha” é apenas um tratamento usual. Não há por que se ofender. Funciona como “prezada, amiga, querida, caríssima…” Por isso aquilo que a Sra. me exige deve ser reciproco: Tolerância. E eu, fui tolerante contigo, ao menos na réplica de sua argumentação péssimamente aplicada na defesa dos gays e sua “fabulosa reprodução”.Fique bem a Sra. tambem….Sobrinha.

  176. Wow, I hope all the kitties find their way to good homes. We don’t worry too much about splitting up, but we have made sure my parents (who cat-sit sometimes for us) will take care of our Cougar and Storm if something ever happened to me and my husband. It makes me happy to know that they would have a familiar place (a place with lots of windows and perches) to go if need be.

  177. HUGE (((HUGS))) I’ve never gone as far as the specialist route, but I understand where you’re coming from… completely!Really hope that it’s a positive experience in the end. It’s not an easy road to travel.-= Jeanette´s last blog .. =-.

  178. Ja, auch bei uns gibt es Bücher, die er (5) sooo toll findet, dass sie jeden Abend vorgelesen werden müssen. Muss sein, darf sein… Aber bitte nicht jeden Abend. Deshalb haben wir einen Kompromiss gefunden: Wir wechseln uns ab. Den einen Abend darf er aussuchen und am nächsten dann ich. (Auch wenn ihm dann nicht gefällt, was Mama aussucht)

  179. Heróis do malPobre povoNação doenteE mortalExpulsai os tubarõesExploradores de PortugalEntre as burlasSem vergonhaÓ PátriaCala-lhe a vozDessa corja tão atrozQue há-de levar-te à misériaP'ra rua, pr'a ruaQuem te está a aniquilarP'ra rua, pr'a ruaOs que só estão a chularContra os burlõesLutar, lutar !

  180. I’m sure it will help you open up yourself, at the very least be reminded of how it feels to be happy, and the capacity of love there is in human beings. It’s your choice…. However, if you do, try it with a group of close people you trust in a safe comfortable and with GOOD MUSIC. Take some supplements to regain seritonon levels afterwards…it might change your life a bit, but hey, im just some guy from the internet.

  181. How to restore registry to default?I recently changed some settings in my registry and now I am constantly crashing and recieving error messages because my CPU usage is always 100%. I am using windows vista home premium and a Dell XPS m1330. I need to know how to make the registry revert to default settings. Thanks

  182. hoi Claire,ik ben een walkie talkie vriendin van jouw vriendin Cindy, en hoorde van haar over je soep blog.ik ben dol op koken en een van mijn favoriete gerechten is een heerlijke thaise pompoensoep .hoe kan ik het recept naar je toe sturen?groeten uit AmsterdamMarion

  183. Thanks for the comment Tara. We’re thankful for honest feedback. This was a consideration before we started accepting guest posts. But one of the things we value abou this blog is the community and what they have to say. Most of that comes from the comments.We could shut the comments off and the site would lose a lot of it’s value. We want to hear what others have to say on the topics we cover, and we also want to share some it with our readers. Saving time wasn’t the reason, it was to give others a unique opportunity to share with our readers. Again, thanks for the input.

  184. caro toscano, son contento che hai letto il mio post.Cmq era fra il serio e faceto, credo che si capiva.(ma il testo del commento INVIATO al sito del figaro è davvero quello che ho trascritto)Quanto alla finzione(!) scenica(!)che venivo improvvisamente raggiunto dai framassoni d’oltralpela colpa è di umberto eco!Lui ha scritto quel libro!(di mio l’ho solo letto, con l’attenuante che avevo solo 17 anni)

  185. தொழிற்சங்க ஜனநாயகத்திற்கும் ஜனநாயகம் என்கிற பெயரில் பொறுக்கித்தின்பதற்கும் உள்ள வேறுபாடு கூட தெரியாத அளவிற்கு சி.பி.எம் கட்சி கணேசனை இப்படி வெட்டியாà001000®• வளர்த்து வைத்திருப்பது வேதனைக்குறியது. இந்த லட்சணத்தில் இவர் தீக்கதிரில் வேலை செய்கிறாராம் ! சரி அது ஒரு பக்கம் இருக்கட்டும். உங்களுடைய கேரள காம்ரேடுகள் தமிழ் மக்களுக்கு எதிராக இனவெறி கக்கி வருகிறார்களே அதைப் பற்றி தான் நாம் இங்கே பேச வேண்டும். அது பற்றி உங்களுடைய கருத்து என்ன ? உங்களுடைய கருத்து என்றால் உங்கள் கட்சி கருத்து அல்ல, உங்கள் ’சொந்த கருத்து’ என்ன என்று கேட்கிறேன்.

  186. Hi Francine, thanks for your question. Here are some examples of non-negotiables that a job searcher might have:1. working in a small team environment (not alone, and not in a huge corporate or government setting)2. using top skill of strategic planning (not doing detailed implementation)3. constant opportunity for learning (not doing repetitive work most of the time)4. no more than a 30-minute commute to jobDoes this make it any clearer?

  187. Someone necessarily lend a hand to make severely posts I would state. That is the first time I frequented your website page and to this point? I surprised with the research you made to create this actual submit incredible. Magnificent job!

  188. oct05 Es que los que compráis cacharritos sois muy presumidos y os gusta lanzarlo a los cuatro vientos…Yo sólo puedo presumir de niños… que guapos que me son… (y me cuestan más que los cacharritos, tú de eso también sabes)… < )

  189. No new news here. Could have started from the top of the blog, and made it simple. Still doesn’t negate the accusation of applying the blame to all conservatives regarding “not giving a damn” as to what happens to all children after they are born. Which of course is not true. You can’t squirm out of it. Your own quotes,( without qualifiers), with Jon’s agreement, even if misunderstood are there in black and white.

  190. I actually commenced having a close friend for just a beer which i come across dependable information about that you just explain below. He claimed ?t had been definitely not I could. Thank you so much I acquired often the think. Me very happy this someone seriously interested in this particular topic!

  191. درود بر تو دوست گلم. باهات موافقم. من برخلاف تو مذهبی نیستم اصلا اما نقطه مشترک تفکراتمون اینه که جوون ها خیلی زندگیشون پر از غم شده… موفق باشید..

  192. Pregunta nº 4: a principal causa de que o nivel do mar estea a subir e a desconxelación do polo sur xa que a masa de xeo deste esta sobre o continente e debido ao quentamento global estase derretendo por iso o nivel aumenta.Pregunta nº 6: debido ao quentamento global as temperaturas aumentan e os bosques volvense máis áridos e secos afectando ao seu curso e ademais isto propicia o aumento e facilidade de dispersión dos incendios o que a súa vez provoca o desabastecemento e desfertilización do solo polo que logo é moi dificil recuperar o bosque.

  193. Ca fait froid dans le dos, je sens venir une énième niaiserie Narniesque avec moults produits dérivés présentés à l’écran comme dans une publicité Le rythme d’un épisode tous les 2 ou 3 ans (voir l’article du Nouvel Obs) laisse également présager des films de piètre qualité scénartistique et/ou visuelle Bref, pour moi il s’agit d’un vrai jour de deuil.R.I.P Star Wars …

  194. theboss قال:احلى شي في الاندرويد ..البرنامج اذا عجبك تنزله تنزله لتفلونك .. مافي حد يمنعك او يحددك بمكان او مواصفات ..بس طبعا انت المسؤول شكرا جزيلا

  195. Quand on connaît l’étymologie de Dax ( du latin aquis , ablatif pluriel de aqua, qui désignait souvent des eaux thermales * et agglutination de la préposition de), il n’y a rien de surprenant à ce que la Bourse de Francfort prenne eau de toutes parts …* Dax, dont les eaux étaient réputées dès l’époque d’Auguste, s’appelait Aquae Tarbellicae au IV° siècle. C’était la capitale de la peuplade des Tarbelli .

  196. Gratulálok a hasznos és színvonalas cikkekhez. Igazán élvezet olvasni.Egy kérdésem lenne a GH2-höz, mennyira tartósak a vázon a gombok feliratai? Látszik már kopás rajtuk? Fórumokon olvastam, hogy a G1 hajlamos rá, G2-n magam is láttam egy műszaki áruház bemutató darabján. Te tapasztalsz ilyet? Épp eladtam az Oly E-520-at és most gondolkodom G2-n vagy GH2-n.

  197. I’m happy she’s better now! And lucky you to be able to do crafty things whit sick kiddo in the house. Me, unfortunately, have no time for sewing for the next few days: the next two are sick now (only one more to go now), but they aren’t sick enough to just lay on the sofa, sigh…They are a bit sad, but not enough for not ennoying eachother…

  198. Jim Ball is one of the best radio presenters as well as one of the most intelligent, best read, and informed.This is a loss for 2UE.He caters for the more discerning listener with a higher intellect who are NOT fond of being brainwashed or being sheeple.

  199. Hei på dæi!SÅ lækker lampe!Den likte æi godt du. Va kjæmpefint med de rosettan på lampa også:)Likte favorittkroken din på kjøkken også veldig godt. Hærlig hylle med masse fint inni:)Ønske dæi en fin dag videre.Klæm fra mæi

  200. It’s strange to look back and realize how aggrandized that f*ing party became in my psyche. And how I came to believe that – because it was a party for “school” – no harm could possibly come to me, my marriage, my job, my friendships, etc. … magical “school” thinking.Cheers, cheers, cheers again, to freedom!

  201. Hey there! This is my 1st comment here so I just wanted to give a quick shout out and say I genuinely enjoy reading through your posts. Can you recommend any other blogs/websites/forums that deal with the same subjects? Thanks a lot!

  202. Please put up a blog post explaining the thought process behind the playlist bar at the bottom, because I'm absolutely baffled as to how it could have been seen as a good idea. I know people ALWAYS complain when theres a change to the youtube interface, but this is different.

  203. Maria Izabel,Sim, foi mesmo um grande prazer ter recebido esta notícia esta manhã. Tinha previsto não publicar nada hoje, pois é feriado em Portugal e queria descansar um poco, além de me dedicar à entrevista coletiva que vamos fazer à Astrid, mas a vida tinha outros planos para mim. :))))Já viu que nas últimas semanas é só comemorações por aqui? Tenho que ir ver o meu mapa, pois devo estar com uns trânsitos lindos.Muito obrigado e muitos beijos.António

  204. Dearest Richard, Thank you so much for all the years of laughs, ewwws, and, interesting perspectives. The Blisshaven crew will be sorely missed and the comics page will not be the same. The shopper-eating bush, the uh-oh baby with it's terrifying prophesy of doom, and Alice… oh my gosh will I miss Alice! Sending lots of love, gratitude, and well-wishes. Ever your fan, Jack Thompson (no relation!)

  205. Dear Anon,a) Would prefer if you put in your identity here :-Ib) As for large or small/ generic or innovator companies, I only know one basic fact: till the time that any producer can get away with a higher price, he will charge the higher price.Sandeep.

  206. he was for capital punishment that you now base your entire presumption on."He's clearly a fascist. All fascists are in favor of capital punishment."I read he said Black on Black murders were sick, this made you leap logically to the unknown fact that he was for capital punishement – ergo once again you have proven that you must now immediately apologize to all Black murder victims as YOU equate the two."If you genuinely think that this is a logical assumption you have problems way beyond the scope of those that I can help you with. Seek help.

  207. Hi! Someone in my Myspace group shared this website with us so I came to look it over. I’m definitely loving the information. I’m bookmarking and will be tweeting this to my followers! Terrific blog and superb style and design.

  208. The same amazement and wonder that authors find is often matched by readers. A favorite comment a college student shared with me after reading a nonfiction book for children is this: Where was I when they taught this in my elementary school? Was I sleeping? There is no replacement for the excitement of discovering new and surprising information.

  209. This is the first time ever in the show that everyone is in one place. That's some daring storytelling structure, but they pull it off beautifully. I always wonder how exactly everyone got out of that VR or whatever it was of Earth. There sure didn't seem to be an exit, plus the door to the tomb had closed even if there was.

  210. Teddi, I join with you praying for all of the people who flocked to Chik-fil-a to buy their meals in support of Dan Cathy and the company. Many people went because they believe in the Constitution freedoms such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion. Many went to support a fellow believer who was being slandered and attacked across the country. God bless them all, Father, and God bless the USA. Amen!

  211. Il est malin et a fait de belles montées à la volée sur son jeu de service. Il doit écourter les échanges parce que Murray peut jouer comme ça des heures. J’ai l’impression que ce dernier a musclé son coup droit d’ailleurs. J’avais eu le même sentiment à Shanghai.

  212. he would be "THE MOST" transparent)can only cause suspicion. He can do away with all the law suits, articles, etc. by releasing his records (hence this web site). He won't, he hasn't and it's his fault creating the mystery and fraudulent ID.

  213. Fisrtly Many many happy returns of the day to Satyajit Ray. Now see the issue is most of us love talking abt current thgs, current stars.Satyajit Ray might have done monumental thgs in his active days but then we cannot hold on to tht. Today everyone talks abt Khan’s, Kumar’s Devgn etc … after 30 yrs maybe no one will talk abt them. There will be next generation talking abt then current favs’. Ye to prakruti ka niyam hai.

  214. The world are now in the hands of Islam, the western media ignores all the atrocities committed by muslims, UN sympathize with palestinian terrorist rather than with Israel, europe(under EU) enthusiastically welcome muslims in to it's blossom while ignoring native european rights, nations terrorized by jihadist prefer to appease them rater than confront them, are we kuffar still have hope in this world?

  215. I simply couldn’t depart your site before suggesting that I extremely loved the usual info an individual provide in your visitors? Is gonna be again incessantly to inspect new posts.

  216. Djees, som people just have to complain about everything. What on earth is wrong about ladies? It's a perfectly correct term. I can't say that you are anything but respectful in your posts. Keep up the good work!

  217. I forgot to post the further emails that were exchanged between Mrs. Smith and I. It does give an avenue to acquire the “evidence” that was presented to the council if anyone is interested.———————————————–Ok Mrs. Smith, since you are an alderman would YOU send me one? I’d be very interested in reading your evidence.———————————————-I have directed you to call the City Clerk’s office and get a copy.529-8234 Larry GodinCathy Smith

  218. Well as a lay man, what I understand is that the carbon in the air does not let sunlight escape once it enters the atmosphere. So, because carbon holds on to sunlight, it increases the atmospheric temperature. At the same time too much carbon blocks sunlight, and so it brings about a dimming phenomena.

  219. CaHya викладіть новину в стислій формі до соціальних мереж – так вона швидше і ширше дійде до мас

  220. she had a nickname ‘Janet the Gannet’, because she loved eating the food left over in the galley! I suppose it is highly unlikely you came across each other but I had to ask you.Do you also, by any chance, know where I might contact 1960s BOAC crew members to find people that may remember her?Kind regards,Elizabeth Adey

  221. Great Content…“Hello! I could have sworn I’ve been to this weblog before but right after browsing through some with the post I realized it is new to me. Anyways, I’m definitely pleased I discovered it and I’ll be book-marking and checking back often!”…

  222. i can see my all time favorite : lumpiang shanghai =) nagutom tuloy ako…hehehehanyway, thanks for posting my badge on your sidebar, i have done the same, too and you'll see your badge the next time you visit my blog =)happy weekend !

  223. Great beat ! I would like to apprentice while you amend your site, how could i subscribe for a blog web site? The account aided me a acceptable deal. I had been tiny bit acquainted of this your broadcast provided bright clear concept

  224. Witam. Własnie otrzymałam takie pismo w celu uzupełnienia lub skorygowania danych. Mam pytanie: czy jeśli nie odeślę im odpowiedzi zwrotnej to dadzą mi spokój? Czy muszę oficjalnie powiadomić pisemnie firmie aby nie zamieszczała danych firmy. Proszę o radę.

  225. Mon pov’ Martin, je compatis dans ton arrachage de cheveux…Mais il faut dire que tu accumules les erreurs:-d’abord une livebox … conçue pour ne pas fonctionner…-et ensuite un PC … conçu pour fonctionner… en théorie… mais difficilement … et pas avec Vista…Donc mon conseil est le suivant:-d’abord changer de fournisseur d’accès..-ET SURTOUT BALANCE TON PC ET PASSE AU MAC !!!!

  226. VuyoOctober 30, 2012 at 16:03 pmAs for this statement: total bullshit. You can’t fool many of us on this blog Vuyo. We’ve all been around a while.Libenter homines id quod volunt creduntExpanded meaning: men happily believe what they desire to believe.

  227. Lo mismo sucedió hace 6 años y lo señaló Hector Aguilar Camín en un enlace telefónico: los votos de Felipe Calderón subían y de manera ilógica, no aumentaba ni en un voto los de Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador… la gente que opera el PREP no son confiables… Podemos tomar fotos de las cartulinas con los resultados, pero me preocupan las de las comunidades alejadas… allá tal vez ni se han enterado de este fraude.

  228. , No non sono eccessive Giuseppe solo che da qualche parte dobbiamo iniziare. Per me il capitolo politica nel senso partito o movimento e’ chiuso! Prima avanti con la consapevolezza e l’alternativa osteggiata dai soliti profeti del nulla e del dagli alla demagogia e poi il resto viene da se sperando che non si ripeti la parabola dei fessi e dei furbi e che i gatti e le volpi impicchino un pezzo di legno!

  229. Rachel KingTo NoahI saw you perform today. You were amazing. I’m so happy for you. The spring Sharon Middle School concert would have sounded much better if you had been there but I am so glad that you were performing in Billy Elliot instead. Billy Elliot is my favorite musical. You are the most talented kid I know. Wishing you the best in the future!!Your former schoolmateRachel King

  230. Howdy! This is my first visit to your blog! We are a team of volunteers and starting a new initiative in a community in the same niche. Your blog provided us valuable information to work on. You have done a outstanding job!VA:F [1.6.5_908]please wait…VA:F [1.6.5_908](from 0 votes)

  231. This is the punish Reduce Your Cable Bill Or Satellite Bill diary for anyone who wants to move out out around this theme. You asking so more its nigh wearing to contend with you (not that I rattling would want…HaHa). You definitely put a new extend on a message thats been codified about for life. Respectable bunk, simply outstanding!

  232. Hi Debbi,I'm still tired, but I looked and looked at the two pics and I think the one on the right looks better. It looks a little less washed out.It's a cute card though, and I'm jealous of the the shopping. But if I was there I would probably have filled two baskets, so well done, lol!!take careMeahni

  233. You actually make it seem so easy with your presentation but I find this matter to be actually something which I think I would never understand. It seems too complex and very broad for me. I’m looking forward for your next post, I’ll try to get the hang of it!

  234. Gracias Ger !!! Un gusto que me llames administrador, aunque sea en joda, pero esto es merito de todos los que comentan en la Legion y que se sumaron a este humilde aporte, a los que quieran colaborar en este juego, que se prendan, es de todos !!! (Incluido Elsa)Pd: Como vice del CDV quiero agradecer a nuestro presidente, el CHINO, que me dio toda la libertad para desarrollar este logro.

  235. พูดว่า:It seems to me that this site doesnt load on a Motorola Droid. Are other folks getting the exact same problem? I like this blog and dont want to have to skip it whenever Im away from my computer.

  236. Mysterious Connundrum.If you find in everyting you do a little bit of humour and work hard at laughing at yourself in difficult circumstances and not take life too seriously by accepting that all of us at some stage or other have to die.By living your life by being gratefull as opposed to being entitled……then perhaps the curcumstances that dictate out actions may indeed lead to a more fullfilled life.( just some thoughts)lee du ploy(author of the Glass Facade)lee

  237. “The Town Anti-Semite”. Charming name. It just reconfirms that when you come right down to it, the extreme right and the extreme left can agree on one thing: it’s all the fault of the Jews.Thanks for reminding me.I deleted the post that offended you. Sorry it stayed up so long. I don’t personally blame the Jews for anything in particular. I’m keeping a sharp watch on Canada, though.

  238. There is a slight analogy to this argument in the car business. GM is in hot water for investing $600m in advertising with ManU, indeed it got the guy fired. If you look at it from a US/GB/Euro perspective, it looks absurd. But, ManU is the biggest soccer brand in the world, especially in Asia. If Asia is your new profitable market, then investing in ManU is not such a bad idea. Walk into a Ferrari store (one of their clothing outlets), the clientele is virtually all Asian. Money walks, money talks, and if MotoGP sells boatloads of 175cc scooters, who cares if no one in the US cares?

  239. I love it when people write about WordPress plugins. There is always one that I have never tried! I too am a lover of WordPress and want to try to establish professional relationships with as many WordPress bloggers as I can. You haven’t seen the last of me!Wade recently posted..

  240. "Espinha é coisa de peixe. Os humanos têm coluna. Mas enfim, o caro terá espinha."Qual quê, este gajo não tem disso. Dá-lhe jeito, levanta melhor o cu por respeito étnico.

  241. I always wonder what happened to this woman (the “Migrant Mother”). The story (apocryphal?) I’ve heard about the Pulitzer Prize-winning pic—where she’s really got the “Oh Shit: Now What?” expression—is that she’s just sold the tires off her car, to buy food. 🙁

  242. より:I wanted to visit and allow you to know how , very much I valued discovering your web blog today. I will consider it an honor to do things at my workplace and be able to operate on the tips discussed on your blog and also be involved in visitors’ remarks like this. Should a position of guest writer become on offer at your end, you should let me know.

  243. Hi, I just received such ticket (1144-A) and am also from Ontario, Canada. I’ve also noticed that the officer made a mispelled my last name. Does that change anything at all?I’m also confused at the fine/point deduction as it’s never stated on the ticket. Thanks in advance.

  244. Angelina Jolie now comes in two exciting new flavors:Angelina light (Megan Fox) which has all the bold flavors with half the talent OR Orange Vanilla Creme (LL) for those who want to keep the talent (and the crazy) but prefer something a little more sun kissed.Okay, we need to write a new “crazy girls” movie so that LL has something to shine in/relate to, and then maybe she’ll be okay. It gave AJ an Oscar…OOOH! What if we got them in the SAME movie?

  245. Well, thanks for the reviews and the recommendations, Kilian–that’s always good to hear. But I have definitely never spoken on a panel at a convention of any kind. I sure hope someone talked about me at one, though. That would be awesome.As to the blog, well, I really should post on it more. Unfortunately, I’m terrible at doing it while actually writing my next book (and also all the time in general), so it might not be used for much more than big news for a while unless I get a big flash of inspiration for a post. Sorry!

  246. mirant la classe política un pot sentir llàstima, impotència, ràbia, vergonya, …. però és el què queda. Algú sabria millorar el que hi ha? Algú sap regular l’ambició, l’egoïsme o la mediocritat de les persones?Pots voler fora el Saura, però en tindràs un altre. En salvaràs cap? difícil. Aquell qui voldries per allí no hi voldrà estar mail.

  247. No, the sun is getting hotter. That would heat things up a bit right? There is no evidence that our carbon footprint on the earth is affecting the globe. Al Bore is an idiot. The only reason they want us to buy into the idea of global warming is so that they can start a global, yes global carbon tax. The powers that be are already talking about it.

  248. sorry, although many would like me to have a blog, i don't have, need or want a blog.instead, unlike you, i have a LIFE, where i make a positive difference to my children, my friends and my community, including elected officials, non-profits and others that i serve and who welcome, and need my contributions.you, in comparison, are a shit schmear in the world who lives in her own mind only and helps no one! save yourself before it's too late.